Central African Republic [fr]
President Ange-Félix Patassé, who had been at the head of the country since 1993, was overthrown by General Bozizé when he was away on a visit to Niger. François Bozizé later organized presidential elections in 2005 which he won, and he was re-elected for a second term of office in January 2011. At the political and security level, since Bozizé’s first election in 2005, the country has experienced a series of troubles in the north and east of the country, as various politico-military groups are responsible for many acts of violence, confrontations and rebellions. Between 2007 and 2011, peace agreements were gradually signed by rebels and the government to launch disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes, put an end to instability in the country and restore national dialogue.
However, as it felt wronged by the partial application of these agreements, the Seleka, a coalition of rebel groups (Convention of Patriots for Justice and Peace (CPJP), Union of Democratic Forces for Unity (UFDR) and Patriotic Convention for Saving the Country (CPSK)) made up of armed militias, decided to take up arms and on 24 March 2013 deposed President Bozizé who had been in power for ten years. Michael Djotodia, the head of the Seleka coalition, proclaimed himself President and formed a new government made up of regime opponents, members of the rebellion and civil society, and he issued an international arrest warrant against the former President who was then living in exile in Cameroon. In the context of these developments, France increased its contingent of soldiers already in the country from 200 troops to 550, to ensure the protection of its nationals.
Since Seleka took power in March 2013, human rights violations have greatly increased in the country and the political, security and humanitarian situation has seriously deteriorated. This has led to the displacement of many people, which threatened stability throughout the Central African region. On 1 August 2013, the African Union decided to deploy the over 3,000 strong African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) to restore stability in the country. This new mission was in support of the Mission for the Consolidation of Peace in the Central African Republic (MICOPAX) to help the transitional Central African government secure its territory.
The CAR has been on the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) agenda since June 2008. The PBC supports post-conflict recovery, reintegration and reconstruction through the efforts of its Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Steering Committee (DDR Steering Committee) of the Central African Republic.
The United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in the Central African Republic (BINUCA), established by the Security Council presidential statement of 7 April 2009 (S/PRST/2009/5), was designed to coordinate UN efforts to support processes for national reconciliation, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security sector reform (SSR). Following the adoption of Security Council resolution 2149, BINUCA was subsumed within MINUSCA.
10 February 2014 - Rights reserved
24 March 2013: the overthrow of President François Bozizé, in power since 2003, by the Seleka coalition (now known as the Popular front for the rebirth of the Central African Republic – FPRC) triggered a serious political, security and humanitarian crisis.
5 December 2013: Operation Sangaris deployed to back the Support Mission to the CAR (MISCA). The French intervention in response to a request from the Central African transitional authorities was conducted under the mandate conferred by United Nations Security Council resolution 2127.
Given the scale of violence and abuses by armed groups, the United Nations Secretary-General said there was a risk of genocide in the CAR
1 April 2014: launch of the EUFOR RCA military operation to achieve a secure environment in the area of the capital Bangui
10 April 2014: the Security Council adopted resolution 2149 authorizing the deployment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), which took over from MISCA on 15 September 2014
In the Security Council, France was the penholder in the CAR file. The following decisive resolutions on the CAR were adopted on our initiative:
UNSC resolution 2121(2013) on BINUCA
UNSC resolutions 2127(2013) and 2134(2014) on MISCA (deployed on 19 December 2013), Sangaris, EUFOR RCA and the establishment of the sanctions regime
UNSC resolution 2149(2014) on MINUSCA
UNSC resolution 2181(2014) extending the mandate of EUFOR RCA until 15 March 2015
UNSC resolution 2196(2015) renewing the CAR sanctions regime
UNSC resolution 2212(2015) increasing uniformed personnel of MINUSCA