Having completed several key stages of its transition, Libya is currently going through a serious political and security crisis. France is mobilized to help the Libyan authorities bring about a successful democratic transition. It initiated the gathering of the international community at the Paris conference in February 2013, for example.
As national security forces are frequently replaced by armed brigades, the terrorist threat is growing, especially in the east and south-west, and foreign establishments are regularly targeted. A French national was killed in Benghazi on 2 March 2014, for example, and the French Embassy in Tripoli was attacked on 23 April 2013. On 11 September 2012, Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and three of his colleagues were killed in an attack on the American diplomatic compound in Benghazi.
In 2014, around 2803 people died as a result of violence in Libya, including hundreds of civilians. According to the UN, violations comparable to war crimes have been committed. The presence of jihadists aligning themselves with Daesh in Benghazi, Sirte and Derna, as well as terrorist and criminal groups in the south of the country, pose a considerable risk to the whole region. Instability in Libya is also giving Sahelian terrorist groups the chance to rebuild their strength in the south of Libya.
Since the Security Council adopted resolutions 1970 and 1973 to enable international intervention, the embargo and sanctions imposed on Libya have gradually been relaxed. Under resolution 1973, the International Criminal Court is investigating Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and his intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The UN is also maintaining an embargo on the transfer of lethal military equipment into or out of Libya.
Security Council resolution 2174, which was adopted on 27 August 2014 and voted for by France, provides for the use of sanctions against those seeking to obstruct the political transition.
In 2012, the UN set up a small-scale support mission (UNSMIL, 215 civilian staff members), with a mandate which focuses on the political process (national dialogue and constitutional process), but also concerns more broadly the development of the Rule of Law, governance and security. It is led by the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General in Libya, Mr Bernardino León, a Spanish diplomat.