4 February 2014 - UNMISS Photo/Isaac Billy
PKOs today: 16 operations – nearly 100,000 uniformed personnel - about $7.85 billion - complex mandates
You can find the table of the UN 16 peacekeeping operations here.
UN peacekeeping operations have changed considerably in recent years.
The Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and the Department of Field Support (DFS) manage 16 peacekeeping operations and one special political mission (Afghanistan). There are a further 12 political and peacebuilding operations managed by the Department of Political Affairs, including a mission in Iraq. DFS was created in 2007 (by General Assembly resolution 61/279) following proposals by the Secretary General to restructure DPKO and establish a separate department to strengthen the organizational capacity of the UN to manage the growing number of peacekeeping operations.
Regarding operational manpower, as of 30 November 2013, more than 98,200 military personnel were deployed, as well as more than 16,800 police officers and around 2,000 military observers. In all, about 117, 000 peacekeepers are now deployed compared with 12,000 in 1996 and 20,000 in 2000.
The most important missions are MONUSCO (DRC) with about 21,198, UNAMID (the United Nations-African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur) with more than 19,442 personnel in uniform,UNIFIL (Lebanon) with about 10,413, UNOCI (Côte d’Ivoire) with 9,944 personnel, MINUSTAH (Haiti) with 8,600 personnel, UNMIL (Liberia) with about 7,467, UNMISS (Southern Sudan) with 7,684 and MINUSMA (Mali) with 6,439..
As of 31 December 2013, 120 countries were contributing troops to PKOs. Fifteen countries each provide more than 2,000 soldiers for peacekeeping operations. Among them, the Indian subcontinent is by far the greatest contributor of troops, providing more than 30,000 peacekeepers, a third of the total number. Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and Ethiopia are the four leading contributors. As of 31 December 2013, France ranked 26th, (Second European contributor and second largest contributor among the permanent members of the Security Council behind China) with a total of 952 personnel deployed in 8 missions (mostly in Lebanon, UNIFIL). Six francophone states – France, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Morocco, Niger and Benin – are among the major contributors. (See the table of contributions by Member States to the PKOs on the UN website).
This quantitative increase in peacekeeping operations has been accompanied by the increasing complexity and diversity of missions. The end of the Cold War accelerated a dramatic change in UN peacekeeping operations. The Security Council introduced larger and more complex peacekeeping operations, often with a view toward facilitating the implementation of comprehensive peace agreements between interstate protagonists.
Most of these missions are multidimensional and encompass the establishment of the rule of law, protection of human rights, support for political processes, and economic and humanitarian assistance, the process of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security sector reform (SSR). The missions also often have to coordinate with regional organizations that work with the UN (this is the case with the largest mission, the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur).
This two-pronged development has heavy financial implications; the total budget for all peacekeeping operations has grown from $840 million for the budgetary year 1998/1999 (1 July to 30 June), to about $7.2 billion for the budgetary year 2008/2009, $7.8 billion for the year 2009/2010 and $7.83 billion for the years 2010/2011, $7.93 billion for the years 2011/2012, $7.3 billion for the years 2012/2013 and $7.85 billion for the years 2012/2013.
France makes a significant contribution to the peacekeeping operations budget. As a permanent member of the Security Council, its assessed contribution to the peacekeeping operations budget is higher than its assessed contribution to the regular budget (7.21% compared to 6.12% for the regular budget). Contribution from European Union countries represents 36.69%.
Peacekeeping operations have long been a topic of debate at the UN. The now famous report, the Brahimi Report, was sponsored by Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000, at a time when the 20,000 peacekeepers were deployed in PKOs (there are five times as many today).
Lakdhar Brahimi, who was invited to the General Assembly on 22 June 2010 to participate in a thematic debate on the PKOs (in which France made a statement) reaffirmed the extent to which the report’s recommendations from 10 years ago were still valid: the mandates should be clear; the PKOs should have adequate resources to carry out the tasks entrusted to them; the PKOs could not do everything and be deployed just anywhere; they should not replace political processes; the secretariat’s capacity for political analysis should be improved; the quality of troops should be improved rather than increasing the quantity; Lebanon demonstrated how quickly troops could be deployed – this should become common practice; dialogue with the main troop contributing countries whose men are risking their lives on the ground should be improved; this should also be the case with respect to collaboration with non-UN stakeholders.