On 19 August 2014, the Security Council met to hear the report of the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and Head of MINUSCA Mr. Babacar Gaye.
Substantial progress had been made over the last few weeks. in particular since the Brazzaville ceasefire was signed on 23 July. It proved to be an important step in the political dialogue. . However the political situation remained worrying. The transitional authorities had to ensure that the government was inclusive. Finally, he announced that the MINUSCA should reachfullreach full operational capacity during the transfer of responsibilities with the MISCA on 15 September.
During the consultations that followed, the Representative of France welcomed the recent signature of the Brazzaville Agreements, which was the sign of a new political momentum. It was essential that all parties met their commitments to stop hostilities. National reconciliation had to be a priority for the political process to work.. Preparation for the elections had also to progress in order to set free, open, and transparent elections. In the field of security, violence had declined, but the country was still facing great instability mainly in the center of the country due to state vaccumvacuum. It was urgent to act in order to fight impunity.
Finally, progress had to be made for the deployment of MINUSCA capacities before the transfer of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA on 15 September.
On 11 July 2014, the Security Council held private consultations on Sanctions Comity 2127, in order to hear the report of Lituania’s Permanent Representative and Head of Sanctions Comity 2127 Mrs Raimundas Karoblis.
She recalled that the cooperation with neighboring countries was crucial in the setting up and strengthening of the sanctions regime. Every State-member was pleased about the establishment of the sanctions regime, and expressed worries about the persistence of a worrying security situation and of impunity.
During the private consultations which followed, the French Representative expressed worries about the utter impunity in CAR. In this context, sanctions could work as a useful tool to get round the weaknesses of the judicial system. He underlined that France was in favor of the adoption of new appointments’ and encouraged the Panel to continue its inquiries. He recalled how important it was to remain vigilant about the illegal exploitation and exportation of natural resources, which was armed groups’ main source of funds. Neighboring countries should be vigilant too. Finally, he underlined that the real solution to the conflict had to be political. The Council had to encourage all the present actors to work in favor of a cease-fire and towards national dialogue.
Two months and a half after the adoption of resolution 2149 which decided of the future deployment of MINUSCA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic), the Security Council met on 24 June 2014 to hear several speekers on the situation in the CAR.
After her travel to Bangui, Mrs Phumzile Mlambo-Ngucka, Executive Director of UN Women, reported about an alarming situation for women and children. She asked for the support of the Council to the women of the CAR who struggled for survival. She called for women to be represented in the political process in the CAR.
General Babacar Gaye, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Bangui, exposed concern at violations of human rights as well as sectarian violence on the ground. The political situation remained unstable. He recommended the strengthening of the civilian component of MINUSCA to facilitate the transitioning from MISCA (African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic) to MINUSCA in September.
During the private consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France reminded of the urgent need of humanitarian aid for women and children, main victims of the conflict in the CAR. He reminded that the political transition would only be possible by engaging in national reconciliation. He called for the UN and the African Union to keep on working towards the transfer of authority from the MISCA to the MINUSCA on 15 September.
On 30 May 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the recent attacks in Bangui in which civilians were killed and others were injured and abducted.
On 10 April 2014, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2149 presented by France which authorizes the deployment of a peacekeeping operation in the Central African Republic (CAR).
This mission, MINUSCA (United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic) will comprise 12 000 peacekeepers and will be operational on 15 September. The MINUSCA mandate focuses on the protection of civilians, the restoration of law and order, the support to humanitarian access, the monitoring of human rights and the fight against impunity.
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On 8 April 2014, the members of the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mrs. Navi Pillay, on the human rights situation in Syria, in the Central African Republic, in South Sudan and in Libya.
The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern about the situation in the Central African Republic, which remained precarious. The Council had to take its responsibilities quickly to deploy a multi-dimensional peacekeeping operation with an important volume of forces. It was essential to rebuild the State, the judicial system and start national reconciliation.
On 6 March 2014, the Security Council held a public meeting on the situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) following the circulation of the report of the Secretary-general on the CAR. Mr Herve Ladsous, Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Mrs Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Mr Antonio Guterres, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr Toussaint Kongo Doudou, Central African Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Mr Tete Antonio, permanent observer of the African Union to the United Nations participated to the meeting.
Mr Ladsous recalled the Secretary-general’s recommendation of the deployment of a peacekeeping mission. He reminded that the priorities in the CAR went beyond the restoration of security in the country. Efforts of the peacekeeping mission had to be focused on the protection of civilians, then on the restoration of the Central African state. He requested a strong engagement from the Council on the Secretary-general’s proposals.
Mrs Amos reported the mistrust between communities that humanitarian assistance alone would not resolve. M. Guterres reminded that national and international efforts to solve this crisis had to take into account the whole Central African territory and go beyond the organization of elections and the restoration of security. Mr Doudou called on member states of the Council to make the decision of implementing the peacekeeping mission as soon as possible considering the reality of the situation in the CAR. Mr Antonio supported the peacekeeping mission proposal from the Secretary-general and reminded that the success of MISCA was essential to the future accomplishments of this peacekeeping mission.
During closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France underlined the role of MISCA and of Sangaris forces in the recent improvement of the situation in the CAR. Nonetheless, he noted that an additional military commitment was necessary. A UN peacekeeping operation would strengthen the protection of civilians, encourage the political process and support Central African authorities.
The French Representative announced the circulation of a draft resolution shortly, authorizing the deployment of a peacekeeping mission.
On 27 February 2014, as the Lithuanian presidency of the Security Council was ending, member states gathered in a private meeting to look back at the work of the Council during the month of February.
The Permanent Representative of France commended the holding of this meeting. He essentially focused on the crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR). He commended the joint efforts of the African Union, the European Union and France which avoided the worsening of the situation in the CAR. He commended the mobilization of the Secretary-general on this crisis. He renewed his support to the project of a UN peacekeeping mission that the Council would soon have to examine. He recalled the importance of a cooperation between the UN and African actors, such as the African Union, in the resolution of this crisis.
On 21 February 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to continue discussions on the crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR). Mr Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs briefed the Council on the situation on the ground. The Permanent Representative of Lithuania, Mrs Raimonda Murmokaitė, president of the new 2127 sanctions committee for the CAR, gave an account of the work of the committee to the members’ states.
The Permanent Representative of France renewed his support to the Secretary-general’s proposal of a peacekeeping mission made the day before. He reminded that security matters were the highest priority in the CAR. To that effect, he repeated his support to a logistic backing to the MISCA troops prior to the deployment of a peacekeeping mission.
On the sanctions committee in the CAR, the French Representative commended the work of the president as well as the recent nomination of a panel of experts in charge of investigations on the ground.
On 20 February 2014, the Security Council met to discuss the crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR). The UN Secretary-general, Mr Ban Ki-moon, the African Union (AU) High Commissioner on peace and security, Mr Smaïl Chergui, and the Permanent Representative of the CAR, Mr Mesmin Dembassa Worogagoi briefed the Council.
Mr Ban called for a global and integrated response to this crisis. To that effect he announced that, next week, he would present recommendations on the deployment of a peacekeeping mission in the CAR with a strong mandate. Considering the deployment of such a mission would take a few months, he proposed interim measures aiming at strengthening the logistical support to MISCA.
Mr Chergui commended the common action of the UN and the AU in the CAR. He reminded that MISCA was ready to take over new missions such as the protection of the leaders of the transition and the transport of humanitarian aid. He mentioned the upcoming transformation of the MISCA into a peacekeeping mission.
The Permanent Representative of the CAR talked of a still volatile situation on the ground that implicated serious violations of human rights. He backed the proposal of a peacekeeping mission in the CAR.
During the informal dialogue between members of the Council and Mr Chergui that followed, the Permanent Representative of France reminded that the role of the forces currently deployed in the CAR was to stabilize the security situation in the country which remained the biggest problem to solve. M. Araud underlined that, while waiting for the deployment of a peacekeeping mission, the lack of police forces in the CAR was a priority. He supported a logistical support to MISCA that would allow, in the meantime, to consolidate the peacekeeping mission to come.
On 28 January 2014, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2134 presented by france. This resolution gives a UN mandate under Chapter VII to the European Union force that will be deployed in the Central African Republic (CAR), in support of MISCA (African Union) and Sangaris (France). The resolution also requests acceleration of the transitional phase in CAR with elections to be held by the end of 2014, if possible. the resolution also sets a UN sanctions’ regime against those who undermine the political process or commit human rights rights violations.
On 22 January 2014, the Security Council met in order to discuss the crisis in the Central African Republic (CAR), including its humanitarian and human rights aspects. Special representatives of the Secretary-general for Children and Armed Conflict (Ms. Leila Zerrougui); for the Prevention of Genocide (Mr. Adama Dieng); for Sexual Violence in Conflict (Ms. Zainab Bangura); and for Humanitarian Affairs (Ms. Kyung-wha Kang )presented what was at stake on the field. The briefers exposed deep concerns at mass crimes committed in CAR. They commended the coordinated action of African and French troops for the protection of civilians.
During the closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France exposed strong concern at the humanitarian situation and mentioned the risk of a genocidal spiral. He recalled that the restoration of security in the country was a priority for the African and French troops in CAR. He pointed out a few encouraging signs such as the mobilization of the international community on humanitarian aid (total commitments of $500 million donation scheduled) as well as Ms. Catherine Samba-Panza’s election as interim President by the National Transitional Council. Finally, Mr Araud introduced a draft resolution in preparation aimed at renewing and reinforcing the mandate of the political office in CAR (BINUCA) and at authorizing the deployment of a European Union force in support of MISCA.
On 6 January, the Security Council met to examine the situation in the Central African Republic. On this occasion, the members of the Council heard Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, and Mr. Tete Antonio, Permanent Observer of the African Union to the United Nations. The speakers deplored the preoccupying deterioration of the humanitarian and security situation, with serious disturbances subsequent to the anti-Balaka attacks of 5 December in Bangui. Nevertheless, Mr. Feltman welcomed the rapid deployment of MISCA, supported by the French forces, preventing the situation from degenerating into higher levels of violence. It had to be supported. In this regard, he welcomed the Donor’s Conference planned for next February. He finally called the transitional authorities to do more to stamp out human rights violations and recalled that it was a collective responsibility to stop the violence.
During the private consultations that followed, the Representative of France expressed concerns about the deterioration of the situation, with atrocities on a large scale at the time of the adoption of resolution 2127, and the risk of a deterioration into an inter-confessional conflict. However, the adoption of the resolution and the decisive action of the French and African Union forces enabled to contain the atrocities. The increase of the French Sangaris forces in support of MISCA was made around two main objectives, which had had significant results. The first was the protection of civilians and the improvement of the humanitarian situation, 1/5th of the population was displaced and almost half was in need of humanitarian assistance. The second objective was the disarmament of all armed groups. The solution to the crisis could nevertheless not be military but must be political. Stabilization could only be achieved through the acceleration of the timetable for the elections, the implementation of a DDR program with the support of the United Nations and the promotion of national reconciliation through the fight against impunity and interreligious dialogue. In this regard, France would introduce a resolution to renew BINUCA’s mandate and to give it the necessary means to fulfil its mission. It was indeed essential for the adequate financial and human resources to be allocated to the United Nations on the ground.
On 5 December 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2127
The permanent representative of France deplored the tragedy of the situation in the Central African Republic. The whole population was affected by a humanitarian crisis and the country was threatening to get away with inter-sectarian violence and to fall into chaos. While the CAR had been until now a forgotten crisis, the permanent representative estimated that it was the collective duty of the Council to support the action of the African Union and the ECCAS. The adoption of resolution 2127 enabled the Council to take the expected steps to this end, by giving the African Force, MISCA, as well as the French Forces, a robust mandate under Chapter VII. This resolution also reinforced the Council’s action on two essential areas: the fights against human rights violations, as well as support for the transition process and the intention to adopt sanctions on individuals who would threaten it.
On 25 November 2013, the Security Council met to examine the crisis in the Central African Republic. On this occasion, the members of the Council heard Mr. Jan Eliasson, United Nations Deputy Secretary-General, Mr. Ahmad Allam-Mi, Secretary-General of the ECCAS, and Mr. Babacar Gaye, Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office for the Central African Republic (BINUCA). The speakers deplored the preoccupying deterioration of the humanitarian and security situation in the Central African Republic, with total collapse of law and order and numerous human rights violations by ex- Seleka members against the civilian population. In view of preventing new atrocities, Mr. Eliasson called for prompt and decisive action of the Security Council, in order to restore the security in the country. He also called for stronger support to the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA) so that it can fully carry out its stabilization mission. One of the privileged solutions was to transform the MISCA into a United Nations peacekeeping operation.
During the private consultations that followed, the Representative of France expressed concerns about the gravity of the humanitarian and security situation. The State was threatening to get away with inter-sectarian violence, with a risk of mass atrocities. The Council had a collective responsibility to prevent the generalization of atrocities.
Following these consultations, the permanent representative of France made some remarks to the press.
On 20 November 2013, Mr Abou Moussa, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of UN Office in Central Africa (UNOCA), presented to the members of the Security Council his fifth report on the situation in Central Africa, UNOCA activities and recent achievements in the fight against LRA activities. Many challenges remained in Central Africa. The Special Representative expressed concerns about the instability in the CAR, which posed a major threat to peace and security in the region. The security, humanitarian and human rights situation was deteriorating. Political transition remained fragile and the increase of inter-communal violence was alarming.
Mr. Abou Moussa also expressed concerns concerning transnational crime, including acts of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea. He also evoked poaching and trafficking in arms, as main sources of financing for the armed groups.
UNOCA, in close collaboration with the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), had sought dialogue between the latter and the African Union. Concerning the fight against LRA, Mr. Abou Moussa noted some progress, through regional cooperation initiatives.
In his statement, the representative of France expressed concerns about the humanitarian situation in the CAR. Over one million people suffered from food insecurity, 40000 were displaced. Abuses, violence and killings took place on an almost daily basis. The State no longer existed. The international community had to act quickly.
UNOCA should also play an important role with regional and sub-regional organizations, as security, political and humanitarian challenges requested coordination of the whole range of stakeholders. The permanent representative finally welcomed efforts of the ECCAS and the African Union that had deployed the African-led International Support Mission to the Central African Republic (MISCA). They deserved the support from the United Nations, as well as from all the States concerned. Concerning the fight against LRA, the representative welcomed the coercive actions of the African Union. The priority now was to ensure that the LRA did not benefit from the security vacuum in the CAR to prosper. In this regard, States affected by LRA had a leading role to play together with the African Union.
Following this meeting, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement condemning the violations by the LRA of Human Rights and humanitarian law.
The complete timeline of events here.
1. Recent developments in the Central African Republic
Head of state since 1993, President Ange-Félix Patassé is overthrown on 15 March 2003 while travelling to Niger, by General Bozizé. Thereafter in 2005, François Bozizé organizes presidential elections which he wins and gets reelected for a second mandate in January 2011. On the political and security side, the country is experiencing since 2005 and Bozizé’s first election a series of crisis in the northern and eastern part of the countryregions: diverse political and military groups are behind numerous acts of violence, fighting and rebellions. Between 2007 and 2011, peace agreements are progressively signed between the rebels and the government in order to set up disarmament, demobilization and reinsertion programs, put an end to the prevailing instability in the country and bring national dialogue back.
However, considering itself aggrieved by the partial application of these agreements, a coalition of rebel groups (CPJP, UFDR and CPSK) with armed militiaman, the Seleka, decides to take up arms and deposes President Bozizé, in his 10th year of power. The chief of the Seleka coalition, Michel Djotodia, proclaims himself president and forms a new government composed of opponents, members of the rebellion and the civil society and issues an international arrest warrant against the former President, exiled in Cameroun. In the context of these recent events, France reinforces the contingent of soldiers already in place to insure the protection of its citizens, raising the number of its troops from 200 to 550.
Since Seleka’s takeover in March 2013, Human Rights violations are increasing in the country and the political, security and humanitarian situation is strongly deteriorating, leading to numerous population displacements threatening to destabilize the whole central African region. On 1st August 2013, in order to regain the country’s stability, the African Union decides to deploy the “African-led International Support Mission for the Central African Republic” (MISCA), a force of 3.000 soldiers. This new mission comes as a support to the “Mission for the consolidation of peace in Central African Republic” (MICOPAX) to help the temporary transitional Central African government to secure its territory.
2. The United Nations’ action in CAR through the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office (BINUCA)
Since 2003, Central African Republic has experienced political instability and violence perpetrated by politico-military groups, including the CPJP (Convention of Patriots for Peace and Justice) and FPR (Popular Front for Reconstruction).
The United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Central African Republic (BINUCA), created by a presidential statement of the Security Council of 7 April 2009, aims at coordinating the efforts to support the process of national reconciliation, of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and of security sector reform (SSR).
Negotiations between the BINUCA, the government of CAR and armed rebel groups have enabled encouraging developments including the signing of a cease-fire agreement with the armed group CPJP on 12 June 2011 and the launch of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration program announced by President Bozize on 25 June 2011.
3. The Central African Republic on the agenda of the Peacebuilding Commission
CAR is on the agenda of the Peacebuilding Commission since June 2008. The Peacebuilding Commission supports post-conflict recovery, reintegration and reconstruction through the efforts of its Steering Committee for the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process (SCDDR).
4. The United Nations Mission in Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) : September 2008 - December 2010
In order to deal with the regional repercussions of the humanitarian crisis (half a million refugees and displaced persons) in eastern Chad and Northeastern CAR, France encouraged the adoption of resolution 1778 (25 September 2007), which authorized the deployment of a United Nations mission in both countries, the United Nations Mission in Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) - supported by a military component entrusted to the European Union, EUFOR Chad / RCA. The mission aimed to restore the security conditions necessary for the voluntary and sustainable return of persons displaced by conflict in the border region of Chad, Central African Republic and Sudan.
EUFOR mission ended in march 2009, MINUCART taking over the restauration of the security situation.
Following the stabilization of the security situation, the Security Council adopted resolution 1923 to renew and adapt MINURCAT’s mandate. This resolution implements a full withdrawal of MINURCAT and the end of the mission’s mandate on 31 December 2010.
The Security Council adopted on 20 December 2010 a presidential statement
(S/2010/29), which recalled the commitment of Chad to protect refugees, displaced persons and humanitarian workers after 31 December 2010. The declaration recalled the importance of the "Integrated Security Detachment (DIS)” in Chad, established with the support of MINURCAT for the protection of refugees and displaced persons. Concerning the Central African Republic, in a context of instability in the Northeast of the country, the statement called for a strengthening of the Central African Armed Forces, for an increased cooperation between Chad, Sudan and CAR to secure their common borders, and for a strengthening of the presence of MICOPAX (force deployed by the Economic Community of Central African States) in CAR if need be.
Learn more about Peacebuilding.
30 July 2014 - Security Council - UNSC wrap up for the month of July - Statement by Philippe Bertoux, Political Counsellor of the Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations
10 April 2014 - Central African Republic/Adoption of resolution 2149 - Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
28 March 2014 - DRC / CAR / Ukraine - Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
26 March 2014 - Central African Republic - BBC Radio World News - Interview given by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
6 March 2014 - Central African Republic - Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
20 February 2014 - Central African Republic - Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
28 January 2014 - Central African Republic - Interview of Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, with France 24
28 January 2014 - Central African Republic - Remarks to the press by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
9 December 2013 - Central African republic - Remarks to the press by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations and President of the UN Security Council
5 December 2013 - CAR/Adoption of resolution 2127 - Interview of Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, with CNN
5 December 2013 - CAR / Adoption of resolution 2127 - Explanation of vote by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
25 November 2013 - Central African Republic – Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
20 November 2013- Security Council - Activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa and on the Lord’s Resistance Army-affected areas - Statement by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
20 November 2013 - Central African Republic - Interview of Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, with BBC world News and with BBC Worldservice
1st November 2013 - Central African Republic – Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
10 October 2013 - Central African Republic - Interview of Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, with France 24
10 October 2013 - Central African Republic / Adoption of Resolution 2121 - Remarks to the press by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
25 September 2013 - Central African Republic – Statement by M. Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs - Excerpts
25 September 2013 - Central African Republic - Remarks to the press by Mr. Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs
29 May 2013 - Security Council - Activities of the United Nations Regional Office for Central Africa and on the Lord’s Resistance Army-affected areas - Statement by Mr Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
25 March 2013 - Central African Republic - Remarks to the press by Mr Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
18 December 2012 – Security Council – Central African region/LRA– Statement by Mr. Philippe Bertoux, Political Counsellor of France to the United Nations
All French statements here.
30 May 2014 - Security Council Press Statement condemning the recent attacks in Bangui in which civilians were killed and others were injured and abducted
10 April 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2149 - MINUSCA
28 January 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2134 - European Union force deployment.
5 December 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2127
20 November 2013 - Security Council presidential statement condemning the violations by the LRA of Human Rights and humanitarian law.
14 August 2013 - Security Council Press Statement
29 May 2013 - Security Council Presidential Statement
29 April 2013 - Security Council Press Statement
25 March 2013 - Security Council Press Statement
22 March 2013 - Security Council Press Statement
20 March 2013 - Security Council Press Statement
24 January 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2088, extending the mandate of BINUCA for one year
11 January 2013 - Central African Republic - Security Council Press Statement
4 January 2013 - Central African Republic - Security Council Press Statement
27 December 2012 - Security Council Press Statement on the Central African Republic
19 December 2012 - Security Council Press Statement on the Central African Republic
21 December 2011 - Resolution 2031 - Renewing the mandate of BINUCA until 31 January 2013
25 May 2010 - Resolution 1923 - Renewal and adaptation of MINURCAT’s mandate
12 May 2010 - Resolution 1922 - Renewing the mandate for two weeks
12 March 2010 - Resolution 1913 - Renewing the mandate for two months
14 January 2009 - Resolution 1861 - Defining the new mandate of MINURCAT, as well as a new military component taking over EUFOR
25 September 2007 - Resolution 1778 defining the initial mandate of MINURCAT and of EUFOR
The "Peacebuilding" file on this website
The MINURCAT website