On 29 November 2010, the Security Council adopted unanimously resolution 1952 that extends until 30 November 2011 the sanctions regime created in 2004.
On 18 May 2011, at the initiative of France as part of its presidency of the Security Council, the Council held a public debate on the Democratic Republic of Congo, with the participation of Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary-General, and Mr Raymond Tshibanda, Minister for International and Regional Cooperation of the DRC (read the statement by France, made by the Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs). A presidential statement was adopted at the end of the meeting.
In advance of this debate, a seminar was held on 28 April at the International Peace Institute entitled “From Peacekeeping to Peacebuilding: the way forward for MONUSCO”. It was an opportunity for a more forward-looking dialogue on mid- and longer-term strategies to consolidate peace in the DRC (see the program of the seminar).
On 28 June 2011, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1991, renewing the mandate of MONUSCO for one year. The Security council reiterated the MONUSCO’s priorities, in particular the mobilization for the protection of civilians and the support to the organization of transparent elections.
On 17 October 2011, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of Mr Meece, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Mr Meece presented the current status and the challenges of the organization of the general elections (presidential and parliamentary), set to take place on 28 November 2011.
In its press statement following the consultations, the President of the Security Council stressed the importance of the electoral process for which the DRC government bears the prime responsibility. She also reiterated the support of the Security Council to MONUSCO and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in their work with the Commission Electorale Nationale Indépendante (CENI) to ensure the dialogue among all candidates, particularly through the implementation of the CENI Code of conduct.
On 8 November 2011, the Security Council met in open session to receive a report of the Secretary-General on the organization of the general elections in the DRC, presented by Roger Meece, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the country and head of MONUSCO. Following ths briefing, the Security Council met in closed consultations on the matter with Special Representative Meece and Margot Wallström, Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict.
On 21 November 2011, the Security Council met in close consultations to hear the reports by Roger Meece, Special Representative for the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Maria Luiza Viotti, Permanent Representative of Brazil and President of the Sanctions Committee concerning the DRC. The Council discussed the upcoming elections, as well as sanctions imposed on the country.
On 29 November 2011, the Security Council adopted unanimously resolution 2021 that extends until 30 November 2012 the sanctions regime created in 2004.
On 2 December 2011, the Security Council met in closed consultations with SRSG Roger Meece, who reported by videoconference from Kinshasa, on the situation following the elections held on 28 November. Concerned about the post-election violence and about logistical and technical difficulties met during the voting process, the Council adopted a press statement calling on all parties to exercise restraint, to await the official proclamation of the results wand to resolve their differences through the established legal and mediation mechanisms. Those responsible for violence should be held accountable through credible and transparent investigations.
On 15 December 2011, the Security Council heard in private consultations, Mr Roger Meece, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO on the latest developments in the electoral process. The CENI issued the preliminary results on 9 December, announcing the victory of Joseph Kabila over Etienne Tshisekedi. A complaint filed by the opposition to the Supreme Court was under consideration. Mr. Meece noted the logistical difficulties that resulted in serious flaws and many irregularities underlined by several observation missions.
The Representative of France called for the resumption of political dialogue aimed at easing tensions as soon as possible. He also stressed the importance of a transparent counting process for the parliamentary elections whose results are expected mid-January.
On 7 February 2012, the Security Council met in the presence of the representative of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to hear a report by Mr. Roger Meece, Special representative of the Secretary General in the country. The legislative and presidential elections had been held as scheduled on 28 November 2011 but political and communitarian tensions, as well as irregularities had affected the electoral process. Disputes had to be addressed in the legal framework set for this purpose. The efforts of MONUSCO remained focused on protecting civilians, particularly women who were threatened by sexual violence and Northern and Southern populations who faced the emergence of new armed groups.
During the closed consultations that followed, the French representative expressed his concerns over the irregularities noted by the electoral observers. He supported the idea that measures had to be taken in the light of the upcoming elections and reiterated his call for the resumption of the political dialogue in the country. The Security Sector Reform had to be engaged to ensure the protection of civilians and to tackle the humanitarian challenges in the long run. An efficient coordination between MONUSCO and the other international stakeholders was paramount.
On 3 May 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr. Ladsous, Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, on the situation in North and South Kivu, where more than 200 000 Congolese people had fled from the conflicts since December 2011. The French representative praised the reactivity of MONUSCO in managing this crisis. At the initiative of France, the Security Council adopted a press statement calling on all armed groups to cease violence and the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo to continue, with the support of MONUSCO, the implementation of a comprehensive security sectors reform.
On 12 June 2012, the Security Council met in public session with Mr. Roger Meece, special representative of the Secretary General in the DRC and Mr. Atoki Ileka, permanent representative of the DRC at the UN. Despite some security improvements, these latter had remained greatly jeopardized by recent mutinies within the Congolese armed forces and the persistence of armed groups, particularly in the North and South Kivu regions. In view of this situation, he had called the FARDC and MONUSCO to pursue their joint action to combat those groups.
During the closed consultations that followed, the representative of France declared himself in favour of a renewal of MONUSCO’s mandate prioritizing the protection of civilians.
On 15 June 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it expressed its concern over the deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation in Kivu, and outside support to the armed groups.
On 26 June 2012, the Security Council heard the briefings of Mr Mulet, Assistant Secretary General for Peacekeeping Operations, and the Permanent Representative of Azerbaijan as President of the DRC Sanctions Committee, about the situation in the East of the country, where the armed group M23 was fighting against the Armed Forces of the DRC.
The Representative of France called upon the Security Council to encourage the continuation of talks between the DRC and Rwanda. Besides this dialogue, it was necessary that the Congolese authorities met the deep causes of these tensions, notably through the reform of the security sector and the fight against illegal exploitation of natural resources. The Representative of France reiterated his full support to the mission of MONUSCO and commended the report of the Panel of Experts released on Friday 29 June.
On 27 June 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2053 renewing for one year the mandate of MONUSCO.
On 6 July 2012, the Security Council issued a press statement condemning the attacks by the M23 rebel group on MONUSCO peacekeepers which occurred in North Kivu on 5 July.
On 10 July 2012, the Security Council held private consultations on the situation of the Democratic Republic of Congo, following military developments in the Kivus region. Special Representative of the Secretary-General Roger Meece stressed the degradation of the military and humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the country where the M23 rebellion was active, causing causing massive displacement of people.
The Representative of France reminded the obligation of MONUSCO to protect civilians and to encourage peaceful dialogue.
On 16 July 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attacks perpetrated by the M23 rebel group and other armed groups. The Council expressed its concern with the deteriorating situation in the North Kivu and the worsening of the humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic. The Council called upon the governments of Rwanda and of the DRC to pursue their talks in order to solve the crisis.
On 30 July 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the briefing of Mr Meece, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in the DRC, on the situation in this country, in particular in the Kivus. Over the last weeks, the M23 group had increased its presence near Goma, whereas the FARDC had suffered serious difficulties as the rebellion advanced, strengthened by foreign supports, notably of certain elements of the Rwandan army.
The Representative of France deplored the absence of tangible progress on the military and security situation, and expressed his concern over the increasing number of displaced persons and the continuing child recruitment by the M23 rebel group and other Maï Maï groups. The solution to the crisis had to be political, and the regional diplomatic efforts, in particular between Rwanda and the DRC, should be pursued. The Representative of France reiterated his support to MONUSCO and its mission of protection of the civilians.
On 27 August 2012, Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, reported to the Security Council on the situation in the DRC after her field visit. The UN was deeply concerned by the continuing deterioration of the humanitarian situation and repeated human rights abuses by the M23 and other rebel groups, including recruitment of child soldiers.
The Representative of France condemned the external supports to the M23 and recalled the moral responsibility of the Security Council to act swiftly.
On 18 September 2012, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary General of the United Nations for Peacekeeping Operations, reported to the Security Council after his visit to DRC, Rwanda, and Uganda. He stressed that despite the ceasefire, the situation remained extremely fragile with imbrications between different military forces. Whereas only a political solution could address the root causes of the conflict, no real political negotiations have taken place,. He called on the Security Council to find a way to improve his facilitating role between the different parties, in addition to a firm support to the joint verification mechanism.
The French Representative stressed the necessity to assist the government of the DRC in standing on his own, especially concerning the necessary genuine reform of his military forces.
On 27 September 2012, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon chaired a high-level meeting on the crisis in eastern DRC, in the presence of Presidents Kabila and Kagame. Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and Yamina Benguigui, Minister responsible for the Francophonie represented France.
France strongly condemned the abuses of M23 as well as external support they enjoyed. They should stop immediately. She called for the implementation of targeted sanctions against the responsible of the rebel group.
On 10 October 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations at the request of France, to analyze the situation in eastern DRC, where the M23 rebel movement continued recruiting child soldiers and committing massive abuses and violations of human rights.
The French representative noted that efforts to resolve the crisis for months had not produced satisfactory results. The status quo was not acceptable. A dialogue in good faith between Kinshasa and Kigali should be reestablished with the support of the international community.
On 19 October 2012, the Security Council adopted a Presidential statement renewing its condemnation of persisting external support to the M23 rebel movement by neighboring countries. It expressed its intention to apply targeted sanctions against the leadership of the M23 and the violators of the sanctions regime and the arms embargo.
On 17 November 2012, following an offensive against government forces by the M23 rebel movement, in the Goma region, the Security Council held an emergency meeting at the request of France. In a press statement, the Council condemned the attacks by the M23, threatened its leadership with additional sanctions and called for the immediate cessation of outside support to the rebel movement, including through the supply of equipment.
On 20 November 2012, following the fall of the M23 offensive on Goma, the members of the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2076, presented by France, strongly condemning these attacks and external support provided to the rebels. Resolution 2076 requested sanctions be against rebel commanders and a report by the Secretariat on the external support they received. The resolution also requests the Secretariat to consider options on MONUSCO redeployment to facilitate protection of civilians.
In remarks to the press, the French Permanent Representative stressed the availability of France to work on the evolution of MONUSCO’s mandate to better respond to the worsening situation on the ground.
On 21 November 2012, Mr. Roger Meece, Head MONUSCO and Special Representative of the Secretary-General for DRC briefed the Security Council on the situation in the country. Following the fall of Goma in M23 hands, the rebels continued their progression, perpetrating violences against civilians, carrying out summary executions and recruiting child soldiers.
The Security Council then met in closed consultations to assess the situation in the DRC and examine the renewal of the sanctions regime set by resolution 1533.
On 27 November 2012, a week after the adoption of resolution 2076, the Security Council met in a closed meeting to hear briefings by Ms. Susana Malcorra, Chef de Cabinet of the Secretary-General, and Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, on the situation in the DRC.
The Representative of France encouraged the UN Secretariat to be cautious regarding negotiations with the M23, a movement which leadership was under international sanctions and accused of war crimes and massive human rights violations.
On 28 November 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2078 extending the sanctions regime against the Democratic Republic of Congo for another 14 months.
On 7 December 2012, the Security Council heard the briefings of Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, and General Babacar Gaye, Chief Military Advisor to the Secretary-General, on the situation in Eastern DRC, two days after the withdrawal of M23 rebels from Goma.
The Representative of France asked the Secretariat to consider the possibility of appointing a Special Envoy for the Great Lakes region, as it is the case in several regions of the world plagued with regular outbursts of violence.
On 18 December 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations on the situation in eastern DRC. Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary General of the United Nations for Peacekeeping Operations, informed its members of M23 troop movements near Goma. Mrs Susana Malcorra, Chef de Cabinet of the Secretary General encouraged a political agreement between the concerned States of the region.
The French Representative called upon MONUSCO to implement its protection of civilians mandate in a robust manner. He supported Mrs Malcorra’s call for a regional agreement and encouraged the designation of a UN Special Envoy to support its implementation. France also encouraged a visit of the Security Council to the region in the coming months.
On 8 January 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear a briefing by Mr Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping operations, in which he requested additional resources for MONUSCO in order to facilitate the implementation of its mandate.
In addition to transportation and observation means, the deployment of drones was suggested to enhance MONUSCO’s monitoring capabilities.
The representative of France supported the Secretariat’s request to deploy unarmed surveillance drones, which would increase the force’s safety, while contributing to its rapid response capacities.
On 5 February 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear a briefing by Mr Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping operations, on the situation in the Easten region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Mrs Susana Malcorra, Chef de Cabinet of the Secretary General, presented to Security Council members the efforts undertaken by the Secretariat to reach a framework agreement between the States of the region.
The French representative welcomed the efforts undertaken by the Secretariat.
He also urged the DRC to implement, with the assistance of MONUSCO all the reforms announced by President Kabila.
He underscored the importance for the Security Council of strengthening MONUSCO by allowing the deployment of an Intervention Brigade.
On 22 February 2013, Mr. Roger Meece, Special Representative for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), briefed the Security Council on the situation in the country. The security as well as the humanitarian situation had deteriorated since their last meeting due to the strengthening of M23 presence in the areas it controled and the increase of the activities of Congolese militias in the rest of the country.
The permanent representative of Congo took the floor to call upon the Council to examine rapidly the question of reinforcing the MONUSCO.
During the following closed consultations, the French representative welcomed the announcement of the signature of Peace Agreements between DRC and its neighbours on the next Sunday and said that the Council would have to consider a refunding of MONUSCO to ensure their enforcement.
On 24 February 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which he welcomed the signing on 24 February in Addis Ababa, of the framework agreement for peace, security and cooperation for the Democratic Republic of Congo and the region.
However, the members of the Security Council remained deeply concerned by the worsening security and humanitarian situation in the eastern part of the country.
- On 5 March 2013, Mr Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General, presented to the Security Council his report on DRC and the Great Lakes Region. The UN had to seize the opportunity of the framework agreement reached on 24 February in Addis-Ababa, by strengthening their political support and their presence on the ground. The SG report was thus recommending the deployment of an intervention brigade within MONUSCO, in order to reduce the threat of armed groups in Eastern DRC.
During the following consultations, the representative of France announced he will answer the Secretary General call by preparing a draft resolution on the MONUSCO reorganization, which will take regional actors concerns.
On 22 March 2013, the members of the Security Council adopted a press statement welcoming the surrender of Bosco Ntaganda to the International Criminal Court.
On 28 March 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2098 that allowed the deployment of an intervention brigade within the MONUSCO.
The Representative of France welcomed the adoption of the resolution, saying it created the link between the political commitments of the States of the region and the situation in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Emphasizing that peace enforcement should not be opposed to peace keeping, he noted that the primary task of MONUSCO remained the protection of civilians.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press.
- On 6 May 2013, during her first briefing to the Security Council as Secretary-General Special Envoy for the Great Lakes Region, Ms Mary Robinson reported her first mediation efforts in the conflict in Eastern DRC. As a renewed opportunity to address the root causes of the conflict, the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework had to be implemented by all parties, including leaders of the region and representatives of the civil society.
During the following consultations, the representative of France called upon the DRC government to urgently undertake security sector reforms and extend the State authority in Eastern DRC, given that the Intervention Brigade within MONUSCO had only a dissuasion role.
On 8 May 2013 and as a follow-up to the 7 May attack against a MONUSCO military convoy, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, on the situation of the stabilization force.
The French Representative called to reinforce the safety of MONUSCO’s staff and contingents. He presented a press statement, prepared in close cooperation with the Pakistani delegation, condemning the attack.
Adopted at the end of the consultations, the press statement also called upon the Congolese government to investigate the incident and bring its perpetrators to justice.
On 29 May 2013, the Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon briefed the Security Council on his trip in the Great Lakes region, and especially in DRC, after the signing on 24 February in Addis Ababa, of the framework agreement for peace, security and cooperation (PSC).
The representative of France hailed the visit of the Secretary-General showing the willingness of the international community to put an end to the regular cycle of crisis in the region. Facing the violence resumption, he reaffirmed that the MONUSCO Intervention Brigade could not substitute for Congolese authorities, who had to extend the State authority in the Kivus.
On 22 July 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of the President of the Sanctions Committee concerning the Democratic Republic of Congo. The President of the Sanctions Committee presented the main elements of the panel of experts’ mid-term report. He also announced the publication of this report as a document of the Security Council.
Following the presentation of the President of the Committee, the representative of France encouraged the States of the region to strengthen their cooperation with the panel of experts; he also expressed concerns regarding developments likely to weaken the framework agreement on the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes region reported by the experts.
On 25 July 2013, the Security Council held a ministerial meeting on the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Great Lakes region, chaired by John Kerry, US Secretary of State. France was represented by Mr. Pascal Canfin, Minister in charge of development. Mr. Ban Ki-Moon, UN Secretary-General, Mr. Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank, Ms. Mary Robinson, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, Mr. Ramtane Lamamra, Commissioner for Peace and Security of the African Union, Mr. Sam Kutesa, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Uganda and Mr. Raymond Tshibanda, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the DRC.
Minister Canfin called on the neighboring countries of the DRC to cease immediately any support to armed groups such as the M23, which has been destabilizing the region and seeks to derail the political process. He also highlighted that the opaque exploitation of mining resources should give way to transparency.
Following this meeting, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement.
On 29 August 2013, France convened an emergency meeting of the Security Council in the context of the worsening of the attacks perpetrated by the M23 against civilians in Goma and MONUSCO, causing the death of one peacekeeper and injuring 11 staff members of against MONUSCO. During these closed consultations, the representative of France strongly condemned the shelling by the M23 rebels and expressed serious concern for the stability of the whole region. He also declared that France fully supported MONUSCO in the implementation of its mandate.
Following these consultations, the representative of France made remarks to the press condemning the attacks of the M23 against MONUSCO troops and Rwanda. He also recalled that all parties to the conflict have to fully respect their commitments according to the Framework Agreement of Addis Ababa.
The Security Council also adopted a press statement.
12 September 2013. The Security Council met for a closed meeting to hear the report of the Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region, Mrs. Mary Robinson, and of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO, Martin Kobler. The presentation was following a visit of both UN envoys to Goma, Rwanda and Uganda earlier this month. The visit came amid renewed intense violence against civilians and MONUSCO with the resumption of M23 fighting in August.
During this meeting, the Representative of France condemned the escalation of violence perpetrated by M23 against civilians and MONUSCO. He also called all parties for restraint now that calm has been restored. In the context of resumed discussions since September 11th between the Congolese authorities and M23, France recalled that there should not be amnesty or integration in the armed forces of the DRC for the members of the M23 accused of violations of human rights. Finally, the French representative exhorted the DRC state to reinforce its presence in the Kivus to ensure the security of the population.
After these consultations, the members of the Council reiterated in a press statement their support for the implementation of the commitments under the Peace Security and Cooperation Framework for the DRC and the region. They called upon all signatories “to fulfil their commitments in good faith, which is essential to achieving lasting peace and security in eastern DRC and the Great Lakes region.”
On 21 October 2013, the Security Council held a meeting on the latest developments in the Greats Lakes Region, and particularly on the implementation of the Framework Agreement and the situation on the ground in North Kivu. Ms. Mary Robinson, Special Envoy of the Secretary General to the Great Lakes Region, and Mr. Kobler, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of MONUSCO, took part in the meeting by VTC. This meeting was the follow-up to the trip of the Security Council to the Greats Lakes region in early October.
Ms. Robinson encouraged the Democratic Republic of Congo authorities to continue to engage in the peace talks in Kampala between the DRC and M23. She insisted on the need not to allow impunity for combatants who have committed serious crimes and the need to learn the lessons from the past in terms of amnesty and reintegration for combatants in the Congolese army in order to avoid the duplication of future patterns of violence.
In the consultations that followed, the representative of France recalled that the signing of the Framework Agreement last February was essential to achieve a durable peace in the region. Therefore, while some progress has been observed with institutional implementation of the Agreement and the development of monitoring mechanisms and indicators, tangible progress should be obtained. Mr. Araud encouraged an agreement between Kinshasa and M23 in the framework of the Kampala negotiations. He welcomed the flexibility of the Congolese authorities in the negotiations. The representative of France finally recalled his full support to MONUSCO and its mandate of protection of civilians, as defined in Resolution 2098. He recalled the importance of the reconfiguration of MONUSCO pursuant to Resolution 2098.
On 25 October 2013, Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the DRC.
The Representative of France deplored M23 attacks. They were weakening the Kampala peace talks between the Congolese authorities and the M23. He called on the M23 to cease hostilities and stressed the need for both parties to resume negotiations in Kampala.
On 28 October 2013, at the request of France, the Security Council held an emergency meeting to hear Mr. Martin Kobler, Special Representative of the Secretary General in the DRC and head of MONUSCO, present the situation in Eastern DRC where the Congolese army conducts operations against the M23 rebel group. MONUSCO provides support to the Congolese army to protect civilians.
During the meeting, the Permanent Representative of France underlined the need for the Security Council to agree on a statement to condemn M23 attacks against MONUSCO and deplore the death of one peacekeeper killed by the M23 and of civilians in the DRC and in Rwanda.
A Council press statement was agreed at the end of the meeting.
On 6 November 2013, the Security Council met for a closed meeting to hear the report by VTC of Mr. Kobler, Special Representative of the Secretary General for the DRC and head of MONUSCO, and of Mrs. Mary Robinson, Special Envoy to the Great Lakes Region, on the situation in DRC after the M23 declaration of cessation of hostilities.
During this meeting, the Representative of France welcomed the encouraging news for the DRC. The cessation of fighting by the M23 was a success, made possible by the effective action of the DRC’s armed forces and of MONUSCO that has fully implemented its protection of civilians role, as requested by Resolution 2098. Mr. Araud however recalled that this military victory was not enough. The disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of the M23 combatants were now required. The Congolese administration needed to quickly get back to the areas just regained and provide basic services for the population. Also, all other armed groups besides the M23, including the FDRL, the ADF-Nalu and the Maï-Maï, needed to be neutralized in order to put an end to their abuses in the region. Finally, the root-causes of the conflict had to be dealt with the Addis-Abeba Framework Agreement signed by all leaders of the region. The Representative of France added that France would work with its partners of the Security Council on a draft presidential statement of the Security Council.
Following these consultations, the representative of France made remarks to the press.