On 22 March 2012, in a press statement, the Security Council immediately condemned the military seizure and called for "the immediate restoration of constitutional order and the restoration of the democratically elected government". The UNSC renewed its condemnation in its presidential statement dated 26 March 2012 on the situation in Sahel.
On 9 April 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it called for an immediate implementation of the framework agreement signed between ECOWAS and the mutineers. The Council stressed its commitment to the preservation of the unity of Mali and rejected any declaration of independence from the rebels. Expressing its concerns over the intensification of the terrorist threat in the North of the country, particularly from AQIM, it condemned the abduction of Algerian diplomats. The Council reiterated its support to the efforts of ECOWAS in its search for concrete options to restore the sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of Mali.
On 11 May 2012, the Security Council heard in closed consultations Mr. Saïd Djinnit, Special Representative for West Africa, on the situation in the region.The Council had the opportunity to discuss the situation in Mali.
The representative of France commended the appointment of a transitional government. However, judging by the clashes in Bamako, this achievement had to be consolidated. The military, in particular, had to return to the barracks. The government also had to focus on the crisis in the North of the country, as the population faced a precarious humanitarian situation and the threat of terrorist groups. Mediation by ECOWAS to find a solution in the North was still possible, and the representative of France invited the member states to coordinate, especially with the other countries of the region.
On 15 June 2012, the Security Council met with a joint delegation of the African Union and ECOWAS to discuss ways to restore constitutional order as well as national unity and territorial integrity in Mali. In this perspective, the deployment of a regional force was called for.
In his statement, the representative of France expressed his concern over the fragile nature of transitional institutions and reiterated his full support for ECOWAS. Prioritizing a political solution, he also invited the Security Council to pass a resolution in favor of the deployment of the requested force.
On 5 July 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2056, submitted by France, supporting the efforts of ECOWAS and the African Union to resolve the crisis in Mali. The resolution, under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, takes note of the undergoing military planning of the regional organizations to deploy a stabilization force in the country. It further calls upon all States to coordinate their efforts against terrorism groups, namely AQIM, the MUJAO and their supporters, and calls for the adoption of sanctions.
In his remarks to the press, the representative of France called for the international community to do everything possible to fight against terrorism in Mali and the Sahel, which threatens to destabilize the entire region. France also called all countries in the region, North and South of the Sahara, to intensify their cooperation against AQIM.
On 8 August 2012, the Secretary-General, the Commissioner for Peace and Security of ECOWAS and the Representative of the African Union updated the Security Council on the latest political developments in Bamako and the planning efforts currently under way to consider the deployment of an ECOWAS force in Mali.
The situation in North Mali remained a grave concern: violations of human rights had been reported, the humanitarian situation deteriorated and the risk that a safe haven for terrorists would be created in the North constituted a threat to the regional and international security.
At the end of closed consultations, the representative of France reiterated the availability of the Security Council to pursue the dialogue with the ECOWAS on its proposals to deploy a stabilization force in Mali.
On 10 August 2012, following the 8-August consultations, the Security Council issued a press statement on the political transition in Mali.
On 17 September 2012, Mr Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for the Political Affairs, briefed the Security Council on the last developments in Sahel, in particular in Mali, and the preparation of an integrated strategy of the United Nations in the region, in accordance with resolution 2056. On behalf of ECOWAS, the Permanent Representative of Côte d’Ivoire presented the last elements of the strategic planning of a possible military intervention in Mali.
The representative of France noted that the action of the United Nations in the Sahel had to go through an integrated approach to support the development of the region over the long term, in coordination with the other organizations already engaged in Sahel, such as the European Union, the African Union and ECOWAS. On the short term, he expressed concern about the presence of terrorist groups and traffickers in Northern Mali who threatened the regional and international stability and security. The Security Council should be prepared, when all conditions were met and when the Malian and regional actors were in phase, to support African initiatives to address the serious security crisis in northern Mali, in particular the deployment of a African operation.
On 26 September 2012, a high-level event on the Sahel was held, on the initiative of France, chaired by the Secretary-General, BAN Ki-moon. He stressed the humanitarian dimension of the crisis and outlined the UN integrated strategy for the Sahel. Recognizing the need for coordination between all stakeholders, the Secretary-General confirmed his intention to appoint a Special Envoy for the Sahel.
In his speech, the President of the French Republic, Mr François Hollande, called for the adoption of a resolution of the UN Security Council under Chapter VII, in order to implement and set in motion the African stabilization force as soon as possible to help restoring the territorial integrity of Mali and fighting terrorism.
On 4 October 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to discuss the follow-up of the request formulated by the Malian authorities on 21 September 2012 about the deployment of an international force under the mandate of the United Nations to assist it in the preservation of its territorial integrity and sovereignty, as well as the fight against terrorism.
At this time, the Representative of France announced the members of the Security Council that he would present a draft resolution to encourage the implementation of a political and military response to the crisis in this country.
On 9 October 2012, the UN Secretary-General appointed Mr. Romano Prodi, former Italian President of the Council and former President of the European Commission, as Special Envoy for the Sahel.
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 2056 (2012), its presidential statements of 26 March 2012 (S/PRST/2012/7), 4 April 2012 (S/PRST/2012/9) as well as its press statements on Mali and the Sahel of 22 March 2012, 9 April 2012, 18 June 2012, 10 August 2012 and 21 September 2012,
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Mali,
Reiterating its serious concern about the insecurity and rapidly deteriorating humanitarian situation in the Sahel region, which is further complicated by the presence of armed and terrorist groups and their activities, as well as by the proliferation of weapons, from within and outside the region, and expressing its grave concern about the consequences of instability in the north of Mali on the region and beyond, and stressing the need to respond swiftly in order to preserve stability across the Sahel region,
Reiterating its grave concern about the continuing deterioration of the security and humanitarian situation in the north of Mali, the increasing entrenchment of terrorist elements including Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), affiliated groups and other extremist groups, and its consequences for the countries of the Sahel and beyond,
Stressing the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities for ensuring the security and unity in its territory and protecting its civilians with respect for international humanitarian law, the rule of law and human rights and emphasizing that any sustainable solution to the crisis in Mali should be Malian-led,
Expressing serious concerns about criminal groups activities in the north of Mali and recognizing the urgent need for enhanced cooperation and coordination between the Malian authorities, neighbour countries and countries of the region, in collaboration with relevant United Nations entities, regional and international organizations as well as bilateral partners, in order to tackle transnational organized crime, including illicit activities such as drug trafficking,
Encouraging the international community to provide support to resolve the crisis in Mali through coordinated actions for immediate and long-term needs, encompassing security, development and humanitarian issues,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 1 September 2012 to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) requesting military assistance to reorganize the Armed Forces of Mali and restore the territorial integrity of Mali, of which the north is occupied by terrorist groups, and combat terrorism,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 23 September 2012 to ECOWAS on the conditions for the deployment of ECOWAS troops in Mali and underscoring the importance of addressing the actions outlined therein,
Taking note of the letter of the Transitional authorities of Mali dated 18 September 2012 addressed to the Secretary-General, requesting the authorization of deployment through a Security Council resolution of an international military force to assist the Armed Forces of Mali acting under Chapter VII as provided by the United Nations Charter, to recover the occupied regions in the north of Mali;
Taking note of the ECOWAS letter of 28 September 2012 addressed to the Secretary-General requesting a Security Council resolution authorizing the deployment of a stabilization force in Mali under a Chapter VII mandate of the United Nations Charter and further taking note of the ECOWAS letter of 28 September 2012 addressed to the African Union to engage with the African Union on fine-tuning the concept, modalities, and means of the deployment of a stabilization force in Mali,
Recognizing the efforts and the leadership of ECOWAS, in coordination with the African Union, on the Malian crisis, as well as the important role played by the United Nations, other regional and international organizations, neighbouring states, countries of the region and bilateral partners in the resolution of the crisis in Mali, and in this regard calling for continued coordination,
Looking forward to the meeting of the Support and Follow-up Group on Mali, convened by the African Union in consultation with the United Nations and ECOWAS, in Bamako on 19 October 2012, which aims to clarify the modalities of international support to the Malian Transitional authorities in solving the crisis in the north of Mali,
Condemning strongly the abuses of human rights committed in the north of Mali by armed rebels, terrorist and other extremist groups, including violence against its civilians, notably women and children, killings, hostage-taking, pillaging, theft, destruction of cultural and religious sites and recruitment of child soldiers, stressing that some of such acts may amount to crimes under the Rome Statute and that their perpetrators must be held accountable and noting that the Transitional authorities of Mali referred the situation in the north of Mali since January 2012 to the International Criminal Court on 18 July 2012,
Acknowledging the steps taken by Mali, including by the signing on 6 April 2012 of a Framework Agreement under the auspices of ECOWAS, towards developing a road map for the restoration of constitutional order, an inclusive national dialogue and the organization of free, transparent, and fair presidential elections within twelve months of the signing of the Framework Agreement,
Determining that the situation in Mali constitutes a threat to international peace and security,
Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations,
1. Welcomes the appointment of a Government of National Unity in Mali, expresses its support to the work of the Interim president of Mali, Dioncounda Traoré and urges the Transitional authorities in Mali to present a detailed road map for transition with concrete steps and timelines and to accelerate efforts towards the strengthening of democratic institutions and the restoration of constitutional order in the Republic of Mali through the holding of timely, peaceful, inclusive and credible elections by the end of the transition;
2. Reiterates its demand that no member of the Malian Armed Forces should interfere in the work of the Transitional authorities, takes note of the decisions and recommendation by ECOWAS to adopt targeted sanctions in Mali and expresses its readiness to consider appropriate measures as necessary;
3. Calls upon Malian rebel groups to cut off all ties to terrorist organizations, notably AQIM and affiliated groups, and expresses its readiness to adopt targeted sanctions against those rebel groups who do not cut off all ties to terrorist organizations, including AQIM and affiliated groups, recalls paragraphs 20 and 24 of resolution 2056 (2012) and further decides that the 1267/1989 Committee shall take decisions on requests of Member States to add to the Al-Qaida sanctions list names of individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities in Mali that are associated with Al-Qaida, in accordance with resolutions 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011);
4. Urges the Transitional authorities of Mali, the Malian rebel groups and legitimate representatives of the local population in the north of Mali, to engage, as soon as possible, in a credible negotiation process in order to seek a sustainable political solution, mindful of the sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Mali and requests the Secretary-General, as well as neighbour countries, countries of the region, international and regional organizations and other bilateral partners, to support this Malian political process;
5. Demands that all groups in the north of Mali cease all abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including targeted attacks against the civilian population, sexual violence, recruitments of child soldiers and forced displacements, and recalls in this regard all its relevant resolutions on Women, Peace and Security, on Children and armed conflicts and on Protection of civilians in armed conflicts;
6. Declares its readiness, upon receiving the Secretary-General’s report referred to in paragraph 7 below, to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali regarding an international military force assisting the Malian Armed Forces in recovering the occupied regions in the north of Mali;
7. Requests the Secretary-General to immediately provide military and security planners to assist ECOWAS and the African Union, in close consultation with Mali, the neighbour countries of Mali, countries of the region and all other interested bilateral partners and international organizations, in the joint planning efforts to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali for such an international military force, and further requests the Secretary-General, in close consultation with the above-mentioned partners, to submit, no later than forty-five days after the adoption of this resolution, a written report on the implementation of this resolution, including support provided under paragraph 4 and this paragraph, and detailed and actionable recommendations to respond to the request of the Transitional authorities of Mali regarding an international military force, including means and modalities of the envisaged deployment, in particular the concept of operations, force generation capabilities strength and support financial costs;
8. Calls upon the Transitional authorities of Mali to take immediately all the appropriate measures to facilitate the regional and international preparation efforts taken in relation with the objective outlined in paragraph 6 above, calls upon Member States, regional and international organizations, to provide coordinated support to these regional and international preparation efforts, including through military training, provision of equipment and other forms of assistance in efforts to combat terrorist and affiliated extremist groups, and further invites those Member States and organizations to inform the Secretary-General of their contributions;
9. Calls upon, in this context, Member States, regional and international organizations, including the African Union and the European Union, to provide as soon as possible coordinated assistance, expertise, training and capacity-building support to the Armed and Security Forces of Mali, consistent with their domestic requirements, in order to restore the authority of the State of Mali over its entire national territory, to uphold the unity and territorial integrity of Mali and to reduce the threat posed by AQIM and affiliated groups;
10. Welcomes the appointment by the Secretary-General of a Special Envoy for the Sahel, who should mobilize international efforts for the Sahel, coordinate the implementation of the United Nations integrated strategy on the Sahel and engage actively in defining the parameters of a comprehensive solution to the Malian crisis;
11. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
On 12 October 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted the resolution 2071, presented by France and co-sponsored by Morocco, Togo, South Africa, India, Germany and the United Kingdom, calling upon Malian rebel armed groups to cut off all ties to terrorist organizations or face international community sanctions. Resolution 2071 also urges the Malian authorities to engage in a political dialogue with them. It requests ECOWAS and the African Union, with the assistance of the UN and of their bilateral partners, to plan jointly the deployment of an international force with a mission to assist the Malian Armed Forces in recovering the occupied regions in the north of Mali and combating international terrorism.
On 5 December 2012, as requested by resolution 2071, Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, presented the conclusions of the Secretariat’s report stressing the urgency of an international response to the Malian crisis. This response had to be implemented particularly in a political context and to take into account the humanitarian risks posed by an intervention, which should be subject to a depth preparation.
With one voice, representatives of Mali, ECOWAS and of the African Union urged the Security Council to authorize the deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) as soon as possible, emphasizing the severity of the threats to international peace and security posed by the presence of terrorist groups associated with Al-Qaeda in Northern Mali.
Afterwards, Council members have met in private consultations, during which France has announced its plan to table a draft resolution combining political and military actions, in order to work for the reconstruction of the Malian institutions and help the country to regain its territorial integrity by fighting against terrorism.
On 10 December 2012, the Security Council held a public debate on the situation in Sahel, in the presence of the Secretary-General and of his Special Envoy for the region Mr. Romano Prodi. On this occasion, the minister for foreign Affairs of Morocco, as President of the Security Council, made a statement calling for an enhanced cooperation between the States of Sahel and Maghreb.
In his statement, the French Representative stressed the importance of finding solutions to Sahel challenges, carried and implemented by local actors. He also stressed that only an integrated approach, including security issues, could help finding the conditions of an enduring stability. He called upon the Secretariat to present without delay the strategy of the United Nations for Sahel.
On 11 December 2012, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the arrest of Cheik Modibo Diarra, Mali’s Prime Minister, by members of the country’s armed forces, which led to his resignation and the dismissal of the Government.
On 20 December 2012, the Security Council adopted unanimously resolution 2085 authorizing the deployment of an African-led international Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), for an initial period of one year.
On 10 January 2013, following a military offensive of extremist armed groups form the North against the Southern region of Mopti, an emergency meeting of the Security Council was called by France.
The representative of France firmly condemned the offensive, which represented another serious threat to regional and international peace and security. The rapid deployment of an African force in Mali was necessary. The fall of the city of Mopti appeared to be imminent. He informed the Council that Mali had requested military assistance from France to defend itself against this act of agression. The presidency of the Security Council also circulated to Council members a letter from the Presidency of Mali informing the Secretary General of the UN of this request.
During the meeting, the Security Council adopted a statement reiterating its call to member states to provide support to the Malian Defence and Security forces.
In his remarks to the press, the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations emphasized the urgency “to act against this threat and to work to restore the stability and the unity of Mali”.
On 11 January 2013, the Permanent Representative of France informed the Security Council that France had answered to the request for military assistance issued by the Malian authorities by providing, within the bounds of international law, the support of its armed forces to the Malian units engaged in the fight against terrorist groups. He underscored out that the evolution of the situation justified the acceleration of the implementation of resolution 2085, which includes the deployment of an African force of assistance.
On 14 January 2013, following the launch by France of operation Serval in support of the Malian armed forces against the aggression of terrorist groups from the North of the country, the Security Council met at the initiative of France for an exchange of information between members and the Secretariat. The Permanent Representative of France stressed that the operation Serval was carried out within the bounds of international law. It allowed the acceleration of the timetable set by resolution 2085. Following the meeting, Gérard Araud met with the United Nations press corps.
On 22 January 2013, the Security Council met in public and heard a report on the situation in Mali by Mr. Jeffrey Feltman, Under Secretary General for Political Affairs.
Success in tackling the ongoing crisis in Mali requires strong military action along with intense focus on the political challenges, while also addressing the dire humanitarian situation in the country, Mr. Feltman said. He underscored that the United Nations had obtained confirmation that the terrorist groups had the intention to attack Bamako when they were stopped by the operation Serval, carried out by the French armed forces. The Secretary General, he added, had applauded the operation.
AFISMA and the Malian army were facing critical gaps in terms of equipment and logistical support, Mr. Feltman said. He called upon members States to provide their support to both at the donors conference of 29 January in Addis Ababa.
Several African permanent representatives and observers including from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, speaking in the name of ECOWAS, expressed their gratitude to the French intervention and renewed their call for a logistical and financial help to the African contingents.
During the private consultations which followed, the French representative continued informing Council members on operational details. The terrorists were losing ground and fleeing to the North. The cities of Douentza, Diabali and Kona had been retaken by the Malian forces with French support.
Ambassador Araud also briefed the press after the meeting.
On 25 January 2013, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative and head of the UN Office to West Africa(UNOWA), Mr. Saïd Djinnit, presented during a public meeting his report to the Security Council.
Concerning Mali, he stressed the need of engaging a political process now that the French intervention in the country, supported by the United Nations, had paved the way for AFISMA deployment.
During the following closed consultations, the French Representative insisted on the emergency of launching the political process. He added that only mediation efforts taking into account the claims of Northern Malians could lead to a lasting peace relying on a Malian national pact.
France called upon the United Nations Secretariat to deploy observers to monitor the situation of Human Rights in Mali, in accordance with resolution 2085.
On 6 February 2013, as requested by France, the Security Council met to update the situation in Mali.
The representative of France reported on military progress of French and Malian forces: the territory had almost been totally regained. He welcomed the adoption by the Malian authorities of a road map announcing the holding of elections before the end of the year. Once the situation stabilized, AFISMA should be converted in a UN peacekeeping operation.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press: prospects of the conflict resolution in the UN had the agreement of all members of the Council.
On 27 February 2013, at the request of France, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, on Mali.
The French representative reported on the ongoing stabilization of Mali since the beginning of the military operations.
At the initiative of France, a letter of the President of the Security Council will be transmitted to the Secretary-General, requesting him to report in the coming weeks on the conditions of transformation of AFISMA in a peacekeeping operation.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press.
On 18 March 2013, Mrs Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator briefed the Security Council. Mrs Amos presented the humanitarian situation in Mali, pointing out that even if the situation improved in the centre of the country, it was still really fragile in Northern Mali.
The representative of France stressed that the situation was still under control thanks to the military operations led jointly by the Malian, the African and the French forces.
He welcomed the improvement of the humanitarian situation, pointing out, however, the need to remain careful about abuses and reprisals committed by both the armed groups and the armed forces.
He highlighted the need to deploy as fast as possible Human rights observers as provided by resolution 2085.
On 27 March 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear M.Tayé Brook Zerihoun, Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs, and Mr. Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping operations, present the report of the Secretary-General about a future peacekeeping operation in Mali.
The representative of France welcomed the security stability regained since the beginning of the French military intervention in the country, also welcoming the deployment of AFISMA. This situation allowed to consider a gradual downsizing of the French forces at the end of April, while accompanying the ramp up of a UN future operation of stabilization. He also recalled that all dimensions of the Malian crisis should be considered in the answer brought forward by the United Nations, especially the support for a political solution.
Following the consultations, Mr Gérard Araud briefed the press.
On 3 April 2013, Mr Jeffrey Feltman, Under Secretary General for Political Affairs, briefed the Security Council and the representatives of Côte d’Ivoire and Mali, the options proposed by the Secretary-General to deploy a stabilization operation in Mali.
During the closed consultations that followed, the representative of France stressed the importance of the rapid implementation of a political process in the country, supported by the appointment of a Special Representative of the Secretary-General. He noted that the stabilization phase of the country should be engaged as soon as possible to preserve the achievements of the French military intervention. A UN stabilizing force seemed to be the best option, its deployment would occur by July and will be concomitant with the gradual reduction of the French contingent in the country.