On 11 May 2011, the Security Council heard a briefing by Mr. Mahiga, the Secretary General’s Special Representative for Somalia, Mr. Abdullahi Mohamed Mohamed, Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government, and the Permanent Representative of Ethiopia. It then met in informal consultations.
A presidential statement was adopted at the meeting. In the statement, the Council "reiterates its grave concern at the continued instability in Somalia which has led to a multitude of problems. "While the transition period ends August 31, it expressed "concern at the discord between the Transitional Federal Institutions and its impact on the political process and the security situation."
On 21 June 2011, Patricia O’Brien, United Nations Legal Counsel on piracy presented to the the Security Council a report developing solutions to fight against piracy, including how to create a new criminal and procedural legal framework in Somalia (read France’s statement).
On 14 September 2011, the Security Council met for a public debate to hear the briefings of Mr. Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General for Somalia, Mr. Boubacar Diarra Gaoussou, representing the African Union in Somalia and Mr. Abdiwelli Mohamed Ali, Prime Minister of the Somali Transitional Federal Government. In his speech, Mr. Emmanuel Bonne, representative of France to the United Nations mentioned the need to establish the foundation of a stable state in Somalia and the urgency of the humanitarian situation.
On 30 September 2011, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2010 extending the mandate of the African Union’s Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Resolution 2010 also calls upon the Transitional Federal Government to implement its commitments. It goes further by urging the members of the African Union to deploy additional contingents within the AMISOM so that the limit in the number of troops, equal to 12 000 soldiers can be reached. To support that effort, resolution 2010 has also allowed policemen to be sent along with the military within the AMISOM. Concerning the budget, the United Nations’ logistical support is reinforced.
On 24 October 2011, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2015 on the situation of Somalia, condemning piracy off its coasts and calling for the implementation of all judiciary measures deemed relevant to prosecute the perpetrators of such acts.
On 13 December 2011, the Security Council met to hear a report from the United Nations Secretary General, Mr. Ban Ki-moon, on the situation in Somalia.
The United Nations Secretary General underscored the progress made in Somalia, as shown by the organization of his visit in the country. Significant steps had been taken in the transition process that was to end in August 2012. However, the political and institutional reforms had to be accelerated. The gradual withdrawal of the Islamist insurgents represented an opportunity to stabilize the whole country. Even though the financial contributions made it possible for a part of the population to stop suffering from starvation, the humanitarian help was still hindered.
During the closed consultations that followed, the French representative commended the historic initiative of the Secretary General’s visit to Somalia.
However, major difficulties persisted regarding the implementation of the roadmap and the humanitarian help access to the country.
France reiterated its support to AMISOM, while calling for coordination between military and political strategies.
On 11 January 2012, the Security Council met in a public debate on Somalia, in the presence of Mr Ramtane Lamamra, Commissioner of the African Union for Peace and Security. Mr. Lamamra presented to the Council the Strategic Concept passed on 5 January by Peace and Security Council of the African union and called for the raising of the ceiling of AMISOM troops and the strengthening of the logistical support from the United Nations. The Under Secretary General for Political Affairs, Mr. Lynn Pascoe, stressed the need for the Transitional Federal Government to implement the roadmap agreed on 6 September 2011. AMISOM’s had to be better quantified and the political and military strategies better coordinated.
In his statement, the French representative commended the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union within AMISOM. The security progress made on the ground had yet to be strengthened by the implementation of the political strategy by the Transitional Federal Government
On 6 February 2012, Susanna Malcorra, Under Secretary General for Field Support, presented to the Security Council gathered in closed consultations the possible options of evolution of AMISOM after endorsement by the Secretary General of the new strategic concept of the African Union.
France expressed its support to the principle of strengthening AMISOM but wished to link any increased military commitment in Somalia to the framing of a political strategy, necessary to stabilizing the country in view of the now probable defeat of al-Shabab.
On 22 February 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2036, raising the troop’s ceiling of AMISOM to 17731 men on the ground. Ms. Patricia O’Brien, Under Secretary general for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel, commended the attention given to the issue of piracy, particularly on the eve of the London Conference on Somalia. Nevertheless, despite the measures taken to prosecute the suspects and the recent decline in cases of piracy, the country experienced an upsurge of violence that led to the loss of numerous human lives. Mr. Yuri Fedotov, executive Director or UNODC, stressed that piracy still represented a significant threat to the stability of the country and the region, calling for the development of the rule of law and the judicial capacities through a coordinated approach of the specialized agencies.
During his statement, the French representative stressed that priority should be given to the adoption of a national legislation and to the strengthening of the judicial and prison capacities, to reach a truly Somali-led solution. He also recalled the proposal of Mr. Jack Lang of creating a specialized court for Somalia to address the issue of piracy.
On 5 March 2012, the Security Council met to hear a report by the United Nations Secretary General, on the situation in Somalia. The Conference of Garowe II, the adoption of resolution 2036 on the extension of AMISOM’s mandate and the London Conference had given new momentum to the peace process in Somalia. The decision to strengthen the troops of AMISOM would allow the Somali authorities to extend their control over the country and to pursue the still ongoing peace and transition process.
Speaking from Mogadishu, Mr. Augustine Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General, stressed that the severe famine the country had experienced since June 2011 had lost intensity. The political impasse within the Transitional Federal Parliament and the necessity to finalize a draft constitution were still major challenges.
The French representative underscored that priority should be given to the strengthening of the Transitional Federal Government’s forces to ensure stability in Somalia in the long run. He also called for new contributions to share the effort made by the European Union to finance AMISOM, in particular the troops’ stipends for which is was the sole contributor.
On 28 March 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr. Hardeep Puri, Chairman of the Sanctions Committee on Somalia and Eritrea, and Permanent Representative of India, on the situation in both countries. Even though effective measures had been taken against piracy, concerns remained on the security situation in Somalia, given the redeployment of Al-Shabbaab fighters in the Northeastern part of the country and the multiple violations of the arms embargo. The access of humanitarian assistance remained difficult, particularly in areas under Al-Shabbaab’s control.
The representative of France expressed his support to any measure that would stop the material and financial flows towards Al-Shabbaab.
On 15 May 2012, the Security Council met in public session in presence of the president of the Republic of Somalia, Shariif Sheekh Ahmed and of the special representative of the Secretary General in Somalia, Augustine Mahiga. This latter gave account of the situation in the country as the end of the transition period is getting closer and a government of national unity should be established at the end of August. M. Mahiga noticed the efforts of the transitional government to act in partnership with the international community, which contribution to the process of stabilization of the country had shown determinant. This combined action, along with the adoption of resolution 2036, had enabled the restructuring and reinforcement of the United Nations mission, AMISOM. Yet, the humanitarian situation remained very fragile and the lack of funding constituted an obstacle to the realization of the mission’s objectives. In this context, Mr Mahiga called for the mobilization of a greater number of donors.
In his declaration, the representative of France insisted on the importance of Somalis political officials’ contribution, stressing that the success of the transition would depend on their commitment. The international community’s expectations had proven as high as their support. In terms of security, success had been registered against Shabab but the terrorist threat remained. A development effort should be undergone to consolidate the progress of AMISOM’s forces.
On 24 July 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the reports of the Ambassador of India, Chairman of the Sanctions Committee on Somalia and Eritrea, and Mr Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General, on the situation in Somalia.
The Representative of France welcomed the progress made on the process of political transition, even if the parties to the conflict still had to accelerate the implementation of their commitments to respect the deadline of 20 August. The fight against corruption should also constitute one of the priorities of the Somali authorities and of the Security Council, since 70% of the funds allocated by the international community in Somalia had never reached the state between 2009 and 2010. On the security situation, the Representative of France welcomed the decreasing number of vessels being successful highjacked, but remained worried by the fusion of the Shabaab, however weaken it was, with al-Qaeda, and the protection of some pirates by the TFG.
On 25 July 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2060 renewing for 13 months the mandate of the expert panel of the sanction committee on Somalia and Erythrea.
The Council also adopted a press statement on the political situation in Somalia calling upon all parties to comply with their obligations by 20 August.
On 9 August 2012, the Security Council issued a press statement to welcome recent progress in completing the tasks outlined in the Roadmap to end the Transition in Somalia, in particular the adoption of the new Somali provisional constitution. The Members of the Security Council strongly condemned ongoing attempts to undermine the Transition process and recalled their willingness to take measures against both internal and external actors who undermine the peace and reconciliation process. The Security Council also reiterated its own determination that the Transition will end by 20 August.
On 28 August 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of Mr Mahiga, Special Representative of the Secretary General in Somalia, on the situation in this country.
The members of the Council unanimously welcomed the political progresses that had been achieved, in particular the election of a new President for the Parliament. The Parliament henceforth had to elect the President of the Republic in the briefest delays in order to achieve the transition process that was supposed to end on 20 August. On the security level, the military successes, such as the capture of the port of Merka by the AMISOM troops on 27 August, had to be followed by political progresses. The Representative of France also expressed his concern about the critical humanitarian situation and recalled that any attempts to divert or block the delivery was unacceptable.
On 16 October 2012, the Security Council held an open debate on the situation in Somalia. The Special Representative of the Secretary General in Somalia, Augustine Mahiga, noted that political progress and that the fall of the last stronghold of the extremist Al-Shabaab insurgents marked a decisive turning-point in the conflict. But he also said that the United Nations should remain attentive to these stakes and to the urgency of the humanitarian situation in Somalia.
In his statement, the Representative of France praised the military and institutional progress: AMISOM’s recent success against the Shebab and the end of the national transition period. Main priority was thus to strenghten first results. The French Representative pointed out the necessary remain of AMISOM’s troops, in order to assure a lasting national security. He also asked for the strengthening of the UN political presence to help Somalian authorities.
A summit on Somalia was held on 26 September 2012 in New York, on the invitation of the Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Bringing together high-level participants, this meeting demonstrated the continuing interest by members of the UN to the stabilization of the situation in Somalia.
Pascal Canfin, Minister for Development, represented France. He welcomed the milestone that was the end of the transition and the entry of Somalia in a stabilization phase. On the security front, it was necessary to complete the reconquest of Somalia to ensure lasting security.
A final communiqué was adopted endorsing the principle of a partnership with the international community, and enhancing the role of the European Union to support the stabilization of Somalia.
On 7 November 2012, the Security Council adopted unanimously resolution 2073 (2012), renewing for 4 months the AMISOM’s mandate and expanding the United Nations support package for the Mission to additional civilian personnel.
The representative underscored the importance of AMISOM and more broadly of the United Nations in the nation-building efforts of a country that had had no effective Government for over two decades.
On 21 November 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2077, requesting the Somalian authorities to adopt without delay a full legislation to fight against piracy and to declare an Exclusive economic zone, in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The resolution also renews its authorisations for members States and organisations, notably the European Union, to continue naval operations to fight piracy off the coast of Somalia.
On 14 February 2013, Mr Zerihoun, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, presented the Secretary-General recommendations for the future of United Nations presence in Somalia. As political transition had been successfully implemented, time had come for the UN to enhance their support of the new peacebuilding activities to the Somali authorities.
Following the consultations, the representative of France stressed out that the deployment of a fully integrated and political UN mission under Secretary-General Special Representative leadership, would help bring consistency to the UN action in that regard.
On 6 March 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2093 extending for another year the mandate of AMISOM and suspending for a period of one year the embargo on the delivery of certain weapons.
On 12 March 2013, Mr. Kim Sook, Permanent Representative of South Korea to the U.N. and chair of the sanctions committee for Somalia and Eritrea, briefed the Security council on the situation in the countries.
The Representative of France reminded the political character of the lift of the embargo, which aimed at encouraging the Somali government to progress in the reforms it had undertaken. The Security Council had to remain attentive to further efforts by the Somalian authorities in regaining the military structures to control the military power and especially to the future report by the Panel of experts on this matter.
On 15 April 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning terrorists attacks in Mogadishu.
On 25 April 2013, M. Jeffrey Feltman Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, briefed the members of the Security Council on the developments in Somalia since the adoption of resolution 2093.
During the following private consultations, the French Representative called upon the international community to continue to support AMISOM, to ensure that the re-conquest of al-Shabaab seized cities will not be undone.
On 2 May 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2102 establishing a UN Bureau in Mogadishu as a special political mission (UNSOM), and showing the return of the United Nations in Somalia.
On 6 June 2013, the British Presidency of the Security Council held a debate on Somalia in the presence of Mr. Jan Eliasson, UN Deputy Secretary-General, and Ms. Fawzia Yusuf Haji Adam, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Somalia.
Jan Eliasson welcomed the substantial improvements on Somalia security, economic and political situation. He recalled that the main objective remained the autonomy of Somalia in terms of security and governance. This objective couldn’t be achieved without strengthening the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union and their joint support to the Somali government, as well as the implementation of long-term institutional reforms.
The Representative of France underscored that preservation of the achievements and progress in the country, the continuous support of AMISOM and the establishment of an effective policy for the administration of the country were essential to the establishment of a solid and lasting peace in Somalia.
A presidential statement was adopted following the debate.
On 13 June 2013, following the fighting in Kismaayo on 7 and 8 June, the Security Council released a press statement, calling on all parties to refrain from any action which may threaten peace and stability in the Juba regions. The Security Council also called on the Somali government to implement, without any further delay, all necessary peaceful measures to resolve the humanitarian crisis resulting from this fighting.
On 19 June 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attack by Al-Shabaab on a United Nations compound in Mogadishu resulting in the death of several UN Members.
On 24 July 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2111 renewing the arms embargo in Somalia, and reiterating the will of the Security Council to impose additional sanctions against individuals who threaten peace and security in the country.
12 September 2013. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General to Somalia, Nicholas Kay, and the African Union’s Special Representative to Somalia, Ambassador Mahamat Saleh Annadif briefed the Security Council in a public meeting. Both expressed their optimism regarding the capacity of the country to face the political and security challenges ahead. The establishment of a credible and legitimate federal government and the existing political will to compromise are both substantial steps forward according to M. Kay. However, the gains remain fragile: the security situation remains the main challenge, especially in Mogadishu and in the regions of Juba and Somaliland. Moreover, Al-Shabaab is still capable of destabilizing the country and still enjoys freedom of movement in almost half of the southern and central region of Somalia. Finally, the Special Representative expressed concerns about the human rights situation in Somalia where violence against journalists, women and children continue.
In closed consultations, the Representative of France expressed serious concerns about the recent multiplication of attacks, especially in Mogadishu, which shows that Al-Shabaab still has the capacity to conduct structured and deadly operations. The Representative of France underlined the importance of maintaining efforts in support of AMISOM and encouraging the reinforcement of Somali Security Forces. On the political side, France called the international community to support the Somali government in its reconstruction efforts in order to enhance its capacity to offer basic services to its population.
On 12 November 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2124, which reinforces the logistical support provided by the United Nations for the African Union peacekeeping operation in Somalia, AMISOM, whose military personal is reinforced by 4400 troops.
The Representative of Somalia welcomed the fact that the international community notes the activities of AMISOM and gives its full support to the mission (logistical support, additional troops) in order to liberate the country from Al-Shabab. He expressed the wish that the Somali armed contingent receive support through a new dedicated Trust Fund as soon as possible.
On 18 November 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2125, which renews the authorization to take action to combat piracy off Somalia.
On 26 November 2013, the Permanent Representative of South Korea and Chair of the sanctions Committee for Somalia and Eritrea, briefed the Security Council on the situation in the countries.
The Representative of France deplored the increase of the exports of charcoal, which violates the Security Council embargo. Importing States had to adopt legislative and operational measures to halt these imports, Al-Shabab benefiting nearly half of the incomes generated by this illicit trade. Finally, the Representative of France welcomed the preparation of a notice to help in the implementation of the Security Council embargo on coal.
On 10 December 2013, Mr. Kay, Special Representative of the Secretary General and head of AMISOM, briefed the Security Council by VTC on the situation in Somalia. He stressed the importance to reinforce AMISOM security forces. The fight against terrorism required a comprehensive approach, with political and military efforts. He welcomed the adoption of resolution 2124, aimed at strengthening AMISOM. It was now necessary to have a special guard unit in order to protect the special political mission (UNAMS). Mr. Kay also welcomed the fact that the UE was the second largest individual donor of AMISOM and called the partners to provide a trust fund in order to support the army in Somalia. Helicopters were also needed. Moreover, the political challenges were major: national and local reconciliation, constitutional review, democratic elections in 2016. The federal process should be speeded up, the momentum of the Juba process should not be lost. M. Kay also deplored the numerous human rights violations, including allegations of rape and sexual violence. He finally evoked the humanitarian crisis and the risk of food insecurity.
During the private consultations that followed, the representative of France recalled that the increasing numbers of AMISOM troop levels was not an end in itself. There was mainly a need to advance the political process with the holding of a road map for the elections, the setting up of local administrations and the definition of terms of a federal State in negotiating with regional bodies. It was essential for sustainable stability.
On 2 January 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement following the terrorist attacks in Mogadishu, for which Al-Shabaab has claimed responsibility and which have caused numerous deaths and injuries.
On 13 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement, outraged by the terrorist attack which targeted a United Nations convoy in Mogadishu, for which Al-Shabaab has claimed responsibility and which has caused numerous deaths and injuries.
On 27 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement, appalled by the terrorist attack in Somalia, for which Al-Shabaab has claimed responsibility and which has caused numerous deaths and injuries.
On 5 March 2014, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2142 renewing until 25 October 2014 the partial exemption of the arms embargo in Somalia.
The Somalian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Mr. Abdirahman Duale Beyle, welcomed the assistance of the international community and in particular of the Security Council, which has led to an improvement in the situation of the country. However, he underscored that the country had been engulfed in a war in which terrorists do not respect the embargo. He expressed the strong commitment of its government to implement the resolution and do everything to allow a lifting of the sanctions regime.