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Sudan and South Sudan



1. Latest developments in New York Retour à la table des matières


- On 17 June 2014, the Security Council heard the 19th report from the ICC prosecutor, Mrs Fatou Bensouda, on the situation in Darfur.

Mrs Bensouda called for the UN and the Council to take concrete measures against the increasing violence against civilians in Darfur. She said she would like the UN to answer the allegations of withheld information by UNAMID (United Nations and African Union Mission in Darfur). She asked that the government of Sudan implements the ICC warrants against those who committed crimes, including Omar al-Bashir.

The Permanent Representative of France regretted the current threats against civilians in Darfur. He called for a true commitment to the fight against impunity, and especially for the arrest of Omar al-Bashir.

- On 10 June 2014, members of the Security Council met during private consultations to hear the report of Special Envoy to the Secretary-General Menkerios, on Sudan and South Sudan.

In Sudan, the situation in South Kordofan and in the Blue Nile kept on deteriorating. There was a gap between the government’s initiative to launch a national dialogue and the reality on the ground.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the start of a negative dynamic in Khartoum, coming from partisans of a strong line. In South Sudan, the situation on the ground kept on deteriorating. The quick deployment of IGAD soldiers within UNMISS was necessary to ensure the implementation of the cease-fire as well as for the protection of civilians. The Permanent Representative renewed his support to IGAD, gathered at a summit in Addis. Regarding relations between Sudan and South Sudan, the UN had an essential role to to support an agreement on the joint verification mechanism and border surveillance.

- On 27 May 2014, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2155. This resolution focuses the mandate of UNMISS (United Nations mission in South Sudan) on protection of civilians.

- On 20 May 2014, the Permanent Representative of Argentina and head of the sanctions committee 1591 on Soudan presented the experts’ report to the Security Council during closed consultations.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the violation of the arms embargo in Sudan. He called for the Sudanese authorities to cooperate with the group of experts.

- On 19 May 2014, the members of the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the Commander of UNISFA, Major General Tesfamariam and, by VTC, the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, Mr. Menkerios, on the latest developments in Abyei and on the relationship between Sudan and South Sudan.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern about the “complete political paralysis” denounced by the Secretary-General. The agreement between the two countries on Abyei was not implemented and the civil war prevented any resumption of talks between Sudan and South Sudan, which placed the whole administrative responsibilities of the region on the Force of the United Nations. The Permanent Representative supported the renewal of UNISFA for four months recommended by the Secretary-General. Concerning the Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism, the personal should not be deployed as long as the mechanism had not been implemented. Finally, IGAD should be given a mandate primarily devoted to the protection of civilians and to be under the chain of command of the United Nations.

- On 12 May 2014, the members of the Security Council met around Mr. Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General, and Mr. Francis Deng, South Sudanese Permanent Representative, to hear them on the ongoing crisis in South Sudan.

The Secretary-General mentioned a very precarious situation, with a worrying level of violence, as well as a very dire humanitarian situation and a high risk of starvation. In this regard, he established five priorities: an immediate cessation of hostilities with a one month truce, seeding land being crucial to prevent starvation; that the parties allow humanitarian access by air, land and sea; the support of the international community to humanitarian action and to the conference of donors for South Sudan; the need of justice, the final report of UNMISS having mentioned crimes against humanity; the commitment of leaders to an inclusive political process. The Permanent Representative of South Sudan welcomed the meeting between President Kiir and former President Machar who signed on 9 May the a framework agreement providing in particular for an immediate cessation of hostilities and the opening of a humanitarian corridor.

During the closed consultations that followed, the Permanent representative of France deplored, along with the other members of the Security Council, an unprecedented crisis in terms of severity, with 80 000 refugees in United Nations camps and 3, 200 000 people in need of humanitarian assistance. There was a need to respect the 9 May agreement and, in the event of an infringement, to consider the establishment of sanctions. Consideration had to be given as well to a referral to the ICC to punish the most serious crimes.

- On 8 May 2014, the Security Council held private consultations on the situation in South Sudan and on the UNMISS mandate (United Nations Mission in South Sudan).

Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping operations, Ms Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in South Sudan, and General Ahmed Maqsood, military adviser for peacekeeping operations, presented the latest developments on the security, humanitarian and political situation in South Sudan.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed caution on the announced progress: the one-month humanitarian truce as well as the coming meeting between president Kiir and Riek Machar in Addis Abeba. The humanitarian and security situation remained unstable. He renewed his support to UNMISS. He supported focusing its mandate on the protection of civilians, and reminded that it would be appropriate to envisage sanctions against those responsible for violations of human rights, and mentioned the possibility of a referral to the International Criminal Court.

- On 2 May 2014, the members of the Security Council met around Mrs. Navi Pillay, High Commissioner for Human Rights, and Mr. Dieng, Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide, to hear them on the human rights situation in South Soudan, following their visit to the country.

Mrs. Pillay noted a drastic deterioration of the situation, with serious violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law. A cycle of reprisals was engaged, with a worsening in the last few weeks of ethnic violence targeted against civilians in Bentiu and Bor. The humanitarian situation was of equal concern, with the increase in the number of internally displaced persons and imminent danger of large-scale famine. This dramatic situation had to be attributed to both parties who were manipulating the ethnic drift of the conflict with their own personal interests in mind. Mrs. Pillay called for accountability through independent and transparent investigations in accordance with international law. The State needed to recognize that it had the responsibility to protect its population whatever their ethnicity.

All members of the Security Council deplored the gravity of the situation and expressed their determination to put an end to these atrocities. They called for a review of the mandate of UNMISS in order to focus on the protection of civilians, unhindered access to humanitarian needs and respect for human rights. Dialogue being the only possible solution, it was up to the Council to put pressure on the parties in order to have allow a political settlement with a view to resolving this crisis peacefully. Council members stressed their support to the IGAD mediation efforts and called for an immediate meeting between President Kiir and former President Machar. Finally, the fight against impunity being a priority, some Council members were in favor of targeted sanctions against leaders. According to the Permanent Representative of France, referral to the International Criminal Court had to be considered.

- In presence of Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, and of Mr Rahamtalla Mohamed Osman Alnor, Permanent Representative of Sudan, the Security Council gathered on 24 April 2014 to hear the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Darfur and on UNAMID (African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur).

During his presentation, Mr Ladsous reported a surge of violence in Darfur essentially due to actions taken by the pro-government militia RSF (Rapid Support Force). As a consequence, the humanitarian situation greatly deteriorated since the beginning of the year. Mr Ladsous confirmed that from now on UNAMID’s mandate would focus on the protection of civilians and of the humanitarian personnel, as well as on the mediation between the Sudanese government and the groups that had not signed the Doha agreement.

During the private consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France regretted the degradation of the situation in Darfur. He expressed concern at the obstacles against the free circulation of UNAMID as well as at the unsuccessful national dialogue –as of today. He regretted the insufficient reactivity of UNAMID to this situation. He renewed his support to a restructuration of its mandate which should essentially focus on the protection of civilians.

At the end of these consultations, a press statement was adopted by the Security Council.

- On 23 April 2014, the members of the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear Mr. Ladsous, Deputy Secretary-General, on the latest fighting and violence in Jonglei and in Upper Nile States, as well as Mr. Simonovic, Under Secretary-General for Human Rights, on human rights violations in the country.

The Permanent Representative of France deplored the gravity of the attack on the UNMISS base in Bor and of mass atrocities against civilians in Bentiu. Despite the efforts of the Security Council and IGAD, both parties appeared unwilling to negotiate and atrocities would continue. He supported the American proposal to establish a sanctions regime for South Sudan and raised the possibility for the Security Council of referring the situation to the International Criminal Court. Finally, UNMISS had to focus exclusively on the protection of civilians and give up its support to the government, party to the conflict.

- On 18 April 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the recent attacks by armed groups in South Sudan that have purposefully targeted civilians as well as the UNMISS sites and personnel, in particular the 17 April attack against the UNMISS compound in Bor that resulted in scores of dead and injured, including those seeking the shelter and protection of the United Nations, and the 14 April attacks in Bentiu and Unity State.

- During private consultations held by the Security Council on the situation in Sudan and in South Sudan on 10 April 2014, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, and Mr Haile Menkerios, Special Representative to African Union, presented the situation on the ground.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the ongoing instability in South Sudan for the past several weeks. He was especially worried that the cease-fire was not respected between the government of South Sudan and the rebels, and that the political process was frozen. He supported a revision of the UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan) mandate so it would focus on the protection of civilians.

- On 3 April 2014, one month after the presentation by the Secretary General of UNAMID’s strategic review, the members of the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2148 that calls for this strategic review’s full and immediate implementation and provides in particular that UNAMID’s mandate be refocused on three priorities – protection of civilians, support for the inclusive political process and support for local mediations-.

During the closed consultations that followed, the members of the Security Council met around the Joint Special Representative, Mr. Chambas. The Representative of France expressed concerns about the security situation on the ground since February, with violence involving the regular army, the rebels or tribal groups, and affecting mostly the civilian population. A local, regional and national approach had to be reconciled by encouraging ceasefire and mediation’s efforts, the implementation of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur and a more global vision of conflict in Sudan. In this regard, the Representative called the Sudanese authorities to quickly implement the inclusive national dialogue announced by President Bashir.

- On 18 March 2014, the Security Council met to discuss the conflict in South Sudan following up the recent violent events and the action of the UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan).

During the presentation of his report, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, expressed deep concern at the continuation of hostilities between South Sudanese parties. He condemned the provocations and obstacles from the South Sudanese government against the UNMISS. Considering this, as recommended by the Secretary-General, the UNMISS would cease its support to the South Sudanese government and focus on the protection of civilians.

During the closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the collapse of the state of South Sudan. He supported the recommendations of the Secretary-General’s report which included a refocusing of the UNMISS action on its priority missions. A press statement by Luxembourg was adopted at the end of the consultations.

- On 13 March 2014, during closed consultations held by the Security Council, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Head of the UN Peacekeeping Operations Department, presented the strategic review of the African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID).

The Permanent Representative of France supported the strategic priorities proposed by the Secretary-General: the protection of civilians, the political mediation and humanitarian aid. More specifically, the meeting considered the possible reduction of the UNAMID mission which is, as of today, the second most important peacekeeping mission in terms of peacekeeping soldiers and financial costs. The next report from the Secretary-General on the matter is expected due on 16 April.

- On 12 March 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the situation in Sudan and the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, and Mr. Menkerios, Special Representative to the African Union, briefed the Council.

The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the seriousness of the crisis in South Sudan that froze any possibility of progress in the settlement of cross border disputes between Sudan and South Sudan. He called for an overall review of the United Nations presence in the region.

- On 14 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement welcoming the resumption of negotiations on 13 February between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement–North (SPLM-N) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, under the auspices of the African Union High-level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) and the parties’ reported commitment to the talks. The members of the Security Council underscored their calls upon the Government of Sudan and SPLM-N to cease hostilities, engage in direct and constructive talks without conditions, and make the necessary concessions to reach agreement on ending the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States of Sudan in accordance with provisions of United Nations Security Council resolution 2046 (2012).

- On 13 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it expressed it support to the IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) mediation effort and welcomed the commencement of the second round of the political talks between South Sudan leaders on 11 February.

- On 11 February 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the situation in Sudan and the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Ms Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General in charge of Humanitarian Affairs, and Ms Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General, briefed the Council. On the situation in Sudan, the Permanent Representative of France supported the continuation of talks between SPLM-North and the Government of Sudan under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). Mr Araud stated that he encouraged the creation of a commission of inquiry and supported the African Union’s initiative to investigate the crimes committed during clashes between the Sudanese government and the SPLM-North. On South Sudan, the Permanent Representative worried about the level of violence reported by UN representatives as well as about the situation of IDPs. He commended the efforts of UNMISS which provided shelter to the internally displaced.

- On 11 February 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the implementation of the 1591 sanctions regime in Darfur. The Permanent representative of Argentina and head of the sanctions committee, Maria Cristina Perceval, gave an account of the work of the sanctions committee as well as of the situation on the ground following her visit to Khartoum. The Permanent representative of France expressed concern at the worsening of the situation in Darfur. He regretted that Sudan was not cooperating more in the implementation of the sanctions. He expressed concern about repeated attacks against UNMID convoys. He called for a national dialogue in Sudan. He supported the renewal of the mandate of the panel of experts by the adoption of resolution 2138 on 13 February 2014.

- On 23 January 2014, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Security Council on activities of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation (UNAMID) in Darfur as well as on the security and humanitarian situation in the region. Mr Ladsous exposed deep concern at the increasing number of peace keepers killed in Darfur in 2013. He called on the Government of Sudan to investigate on those crimes. Mr Ladsous reported slow progress on the peace process since the 2011 Doha agreements. The humanitarian situation deteriorated in 2013 with a more difficult access to resources and increased population displacements. During closed consultations, the French Permanent Representative regretted the deterioration of the security situation in Darfur which exposed especially the civilian population. He deplored the stalemate of the peace process and encouraged a robust action by UNAMID for the protection of civilians.

- On 23 January 2014, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the briefing on the crisis in South Sudan by Mr. Simonovic, Under Secretary-General for Human Rights, and, by VTC, by Mrs. Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).

The permanent representative of France expressed concerns about the particularly alarming abuses reported by Mr. Simonovic, which could not go unpunished. In this regard, he welcomed the decision of the African Union to put in place a committee of inquiry and called for its rapid deployment. All parties to the conflict should also ensure immediate and unhindered humanitarian access to populations in need. The permanent representative condemned the continuing violations of the UNMISS Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) by the authorities of South Sudan, as well as the violent campaign against UNMISS and the Special Representative, and reaffirmed its support to UNMISS, whose action allowed to avoid larger scale massacres. Finally, he recalled that the signature of a cease fire agreement was only a starting point. It was its implementation that would constitute the real test of the parties’ good faith, with the holding of a real inclusive political dialogue. The Security Council needed to send a message to the parties to support its launching without delay.

Following the meeting, the Security Council adopoted a Press statment.

- On 9 January 2014, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear a briefing on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan by Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping, and, by VTC, by Mr. Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan, as well as by Mrs. Hilde Johnson, UN Special Representative in Juba and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).

The permanent representative of France noted an appalling situation, both parties continuing to prefer the military option. It continued to have a daily direct effect on the deterioration of the humanitarian situation, with the death of thousands of innocent people and the increase of the number of refugees on the UNMISS bases. The ethnic dimension also continued to be a huge concern. The danger of a civil war threatened the country and the United Nations should send a firm message to both parties, namely their intransigence over the protection of civilians and their fight against massive human rights violations. The permanent representative welcomed the fact that the first reinforcement troops of UNMISS, such as Nepalese and Kenyans, were en route but it was primarily the job of parties on the ground to stop violence.

Following this meeting, the President of the Security Council made on 10 January 2014 a press statement.

- On 30 December 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to be briefed on the security and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan by Mrs Hilde Johnson, UN Special Representative in Juba and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping, Mr Hervé Ladsous, also briefed Council members on the ongoing redeployments of troops authorized by the Council in order to reinforce UNMISS.

After the meeting, the Permanent Representative of France addressed the press as President of the Council.

The Security Council also agreed on a press statement on the situation in South Sudan.

- 23 December 2013: The UN Security Council held an emergency meeting behind closed doors on the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary General for Peacekeeping, briefed Security Council members on the worsening security and humanitarian situation on the ground. He also referred to the request -made a few minutes earlier by the Secretary General to the UNSC- to authorize a reinforcement of UNMISS by 5500 peacekeepers and 6 helicopters (through redeployments from other PKOs).

During the meeting, the Permanent Representative of the US circulated a draft Security Council resolution aimed at authorizing the SG to reinforce UNMISS.

The Permanent Representative of France assured UNMISS of the strong support of the UNSC and raised concern at violence in South Sudan. He supported the US draft resolution and called for its swift adoption in order to allow the Secretary General to respond to the situation on the ground without delay.

Read the remarks to the press made by the Permanent Representative of France following the meeting.

-  On 20 December 2013, Mr. Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the situation in South Sudan. The Permanent Representative of France expressed concerns about the gravity of the situation. The political crisis had an ethnic dimension which was a source of increasing concern. Every effort should be made to avoid the evolution into a civil war. The permanent representative expressed his full support for the mediation efforts of the countries in the region and welcomed the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) approach. An immediate reaction by the Security Council was necessary.

Following this meeting, a presidential statement was adopted.

-  The complete timeline of events here.


UNAMID forces patrol the outskirts of El Sereif, North Darfur
13 May 2013 - UN Photo/Albert González Farran


2. Darfur Retour à la table des matières

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France is deeply committed to supporting United Nations and African Union efforts to resolve the crisis in Darfur, which broke out in early 2003. The conflict in Darfur has claimed at least 200,000 civilian lives and caused the flight of over two million displaced persons and refugees.

- MINUAD: Hybrid UN-AU Mission in Darfur


France, in conjunction with the United Kingdom, initiated Resolution 1769 (2007), which created the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), in order to end the conflict between rebel movements and the Sudanese army and militias backed by the Sudanese government. 23,000 military and police are deployed under UNAMID (26,000 are authorised), taking over from 7000 soldiers of the African Union Mission in Sudan, whose mandate ended on 31 December 2007.

The Security Council, through resolution 2003 (2011) extended the mandate of UNAMID for 12 months, until 31 July 2012.

Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria has been the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur since 1 January 2010.

- UN - AU Mediation in Darfur

France has actively participated in international efforts headed by the joint mediation of the United Nations and African Union in order to consolidate the ceasefire and find a sustainable solution for the Darfur crisis. To this end, both organizations appointed Mr. Djibril Bassolé, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Burkina-faso, as mediator in June 2008. An "All Darfur Stakeholders Conference" took place at the end of May 2011 in Doha. At the initiative of the mediator Djibril Bassole, the participants agreed on the establishment of an internal process of dialogue and consultation in Darfur which should be the basis for a permanent cease-fire in the region. In July 2011, Mr. Ibrahim Gambari, the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur, was appointed acting Joint Chief Mediator in Darfur, in place of Mr. Djibril Bassolé.

- Arms embargo and individual sanctions

Since 2004, the Security Council has maintained an arms embargo on weapons bound for Darfur (resolution 1556).

resolution 1591 (2005) set up a Sanctions Committe (called 1591 Committee) in charge of overseeing the embargo on Darfur and designate individuals and entities for individual sanctions (assets freeze, travel ban). The Committee is assisted by a panel of experts. Since 2006, individual sanctions have been imposed on perpetrators of violent acts in Darfur.

The president of the Sanctions Committee submits a report to the Security Council every three months.

Resolution 1945 (October 2010, adopted by 14 votes with one abstention from China) extended until 19 October 2011 the mandate of the Panel.

Resolution 1945 makes it compulsory for States to notify the Sanctions Committee of all arms transfers to Darfur under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and requires that all deliveries of weapons to Sudan be subject to assurances concerning the end users so as to prevent their diversion into Darfur.

The EU for its part introduced a total ban on arm sales to Sudan.

- Work of the International Criminal Court

In 2005, the Security Council requested that the International Criminal Court (ICC) investigate the massive human rights violations in Darfur. France, along with the other members of the Security Council party to the Statute of the International Criminal Court, supported resolution 1593 (2005), which submitted this case to the ICC. This Resolution constituted the first time the Security Council had brought a case before the ICC under the Rome Statute (1998). The ICC issued warrants for the arrest of the Sudanese Minister for Humanitarian Affairs, Ahmad Harun, and a regional Janjaweed militia leader, Ali Kushayb, on 2 May 2007. On 4 March 2009, Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a warrant for the arrest of Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, President of Sudan, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Another arrest warrant was issued on 12 July 2010 against President Bashir for genocide (the first warrant for genocide by the ICC).

In the six-monthly debate in the Security Council on 3 June 2013 on the follow-up of resolution 1593, the Chief Prosecutor of the ICC, Fatou Bensouda, again deplored that the Sudanese government was not cooperating with the ICC, contrary to the provisions of resolution 1593 (2005). She said "with a deep sense of frustration and even despair" to the Council that crimes continued to be committed in Darfur, including some involving personalities already prosecuted by the International Criminal Court. She called on the Council to act on the basis of information collected by the ICC to allow the arrest of Omar el-Bashir, or at least prevent him from traveling.

3. Abyei Retour à la table des matières

- United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)

A new UN peacekeeping mission was created in June 2011, to deal with the situation in the disputed region of Abyei, which lies between Sudan and South Sudan.

On 27 June 2011, following the occupation of the area of Abyei by Sudan’s army on 21 May and the subsequent agreement of demilitarization concluded between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on 20 June, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990 which authorizes the deployment, for a period of six months, of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), with a maximum of 4,200 peacekeepers.

Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA the mandate, in particular, to monitor and verify the redeployment of the belligerents, to ensure security in the area, to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid and the rapid return of displaced persons. Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA a robust mandate, directs the parties to facilitate the rapid return of displaced persons, and requests that effective human rights monitoring be carried out.

4. South Sudan Retour à la table des matières

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The independence of the Republic of South-Sudan was proclaimed on 9 July 2011. On 14 July 2011 the General Assembly adopted resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations. A new UN peacekeeping mission was set up in South Sudan on 8 July.


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South Sudan’s flag raising ceremony following its admission to the United Nations in the presence of Joseph Deiss (left) President of the sixty-fifth session of the General Assembly, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (centre); Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (right) Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan (Franceonu photo/ Elliot Bellanger)

- Referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan

A referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan started on 9 January 2011, in accordance with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It proceeded "in a transparent and credible way", as the French permanent representative pointed out at the Security Council on 18 January. The vote resulted in 98.83% in favor of independence, according to final results released on 7 February 2011.

The international community was mobilized to ensure the successful implementation of the results during the transition period leading to the declaration of independence on 9 July 2011.


A high-level meeting on Sudan was held on 24 September 2010 in New York on the sidelines of the 65th General Assembly. The meeting was chaired by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and was attended by both Sudanese parties (Mr Ali Osman Taha, vice-president of Sudan and Mr Salva Kiir Mayardit president South Sudan), as well as Jean Ping President of the AU Commission, and a dozen heads of state and government, including President Obama.

The main purpose of the meeting was to highlight the importance of the full implementation of the final phase of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 (CPA), including the scheduled referenda on self-determination in South Sudan and on the status of Abyei. A final communiqué was issued which insists on the date of 9 January for the referendum.

The Security Council met on several occasions ahead of referendum: on 16 December 2010 (See intervention of France), during which a presidential statement was adopted (PRST/2010/28); on 16 November 2010, the Security Council held a ministerial meeting chaired by British Foreign Minister, William Hague, and in the presence of Mr. Ali Karti, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sudan, Mr. Pagam Amum, Secretary General of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), Mr Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General of the UN, Hillary Clinton, U.S. Secretary of State and adopted a Presidential Statement (See the intervention of France).

- United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) and United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)

The UN has been present in the South of Sudan (what is now South-Sudan) since 2005. Resolution 1590 (24 March 2005) established the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The United Nations deployed a large operation to support the implementation of the "Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between North and South Sudan, signed on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi.

The mandate of UNMIS, which seeked to protect civilians, was extended (through resolution 1978 of 27 April 2011) until the independence of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. Almost 10.000 troops were deployed as part of this mission.

On 8 July 2011, the Security Council, with resolution 1996 adopted unanimously, established for one year the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS). It gives UNMISS the mandate to consolidate peace and security in the Country, in particular by fostering longer-term state-building and economic development. It also gives UNMISS a robust mandate for protecting civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. UNMISS will consist of up to 7,000 military personnel and up to 900 civilian police personnel. UNMISS replaces UNMIS in the areas where UNMIS operated on what is now the new State of the Republic of South Sudan.

On 11 July 2011, the Security Council adopted resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw UNMIS.


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United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) forces work on the ground in Abyei- 27 May 2011- UN Photo/Stuart Price

- Since 29 July 2011, Mr Haile Menkerios of South Africa is the UN Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan.

5. Missions of the Security Council to Sudan and South Sudan Retour à la table des matières


— Under the French presidency of the Security Council, the Council travelled to Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya from 19 to 24 May 2011. In Sudan, the members of the Security Council went to Khartoum, Juba and Wau. During the visit, violence erupted in Abyei. On 22 May 2011, Mr. Gerard Araud, President of the Security Council read a press statement on the situation in Abyei on behalf of the Council.

— The Security Council traveled to Uganda and Sudan from 5 to 10 October 2010. In Sudan, the Council went to Juba, where they met with the President of the Autonomous Region of Southern Sudan, Mr Salva Kiir. The Council also traveled to Al Fasher, headquarters of the UN- AU mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and to Khartoum, where meetings took place with the Sudanese Foreign minister, Mr Ali Karti, and Vice-President Taha. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative Permanent Representation of France to the UN, represented France during the trip.

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Members of the UNSC speak with local residents in Wau, Southern Sudan - 23 May 2011 - UN Photo/Paul Banks


(May 2014)

6. Latest statements of France Retour à la table des matières

-  More French statements here.

7. Reference documents Retour à la table des matières

- 27 May 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2155 and resolution 2156

- 24 May 2014 - Security Council - Press statement on the attack on UNAMID

- 24 April 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - Attacks by armed groups in South Sudan

- 18 April 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - Attacks by armed groups in South Sudan

- 3 April 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2148

- 18 March 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - the situation in Sudan and South Sudan under resolution 2046 (2012) and on the situation in Abyei

- 14 February 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - resumption of negotiations between the Government of Sudan and the SPLM-N

- 13 February 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - support to the IGAD mediation effort

- 13 February 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2138 - Renewal of the mandate of the panel of experts

- 23 January 2014 - Security Council - Press statment on the situation in South Sudan

- 10 January 2014 - Security Council - Press statement on the situation in South Sudan.

- 30 December 2013 - Security Council - Press statement

- 20 December 2013 - Security council - Presidential statement

- 17 December 2013 - Security Council - Press statement Fighting in Juba

- 25 November 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2126 which extends the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) for six months.

- 14 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Attacks against UNAMID

- 11 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Polio vaccination in Sudan

- 23 August 2013 - Security Council - Presidential Statement on the relations between Sudan and South Sudan.

- 30 July 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2113 renewing for one year UNAMID’s mandate

- 15 July 2013 - Security Council - Press statement condemning the attack that killed seven UNAMID staff members

- 29 May 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2104, renewing UNISFA mandate for 6 months.

- 6 May 2013 - Security Council - Press statement

- 14 February 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2091 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanctions committee

- 16 November 2012- Security Council - Resolution 2075 extending the mandate of the UNISFA until 31 May 2012

- 31 August 2012 - Security Council - Presidential statement

- 5 July 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2057 which extended the mandate of UNMISS

- 7 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2047 renewing for six months the mandate of UNISFA

- 2 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2046

- 12 April 2012 - Security Council - Sudan and South Sudan - Presidential statement

- 17 February 2012 - Resolution 2035 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanction committee

- 22 December 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2032 - Renewing the mandate of UNISFA

- 29 July 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2003 renewing the mandate of UNAMID.

- 14 July 2011 - General Assembly - Resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations

- 13 July 2011 - Resolution 1999 of the Security Council recommending the admission of the Republic of South Sudan as member of the United Nations.

- 11 July 2011 - Resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

- 8 July 2011 - Resolution 1996 - Establishing the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)

- 27 June 2011 - Resolution 1990 - Establishing the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)

- 22 May 2011 - The situation in Abyei, Sudan - Press Statement by Mr Gérard Araud, President of the Security Council

- 27 April 2011 - Resolution 1978 - Renewing the UNMIS mandate

- 14 October 2010 - Resolution 1945 (2010)

- 24 September 2010 - Final communiqué of the high-level meeting on Sudan

- 30 July 2010 - Resolution 1935 (2010) - Extension of UNAMID mandate

- 25 February 2010 - Press statement by Gérard Araud, President of the UN Security Council

- 30 July 2009 - Resolution 1881 (2009) - Extension of UNAMID mandate

- 31 July 2007 - Resolution 1769 (2007) - Defining UNAMID’s mandate

- 31 March 2005 - Resolution 1593 (2005) - Referring the situation in Darfur to the ICC

- 29 March 2005- Resolution 1591 (2005) - Imposing an embargo on the parties to the conflict in Darfur

- 24 March 2005 - Resolution 1590 (2005) - Establishing UNMIS

- 30 July 2004 - Resolution 1556 (2004)

8. Useful links Retour à la table des matières

- UNISFA website

- UNMISS website

- UNAMID website

- UNMIS website

- Sudan file on France-Diplomatie



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