On 3 April 2014, one month after the presentation by the Secretary General of UNAMID’s strategic review, the members of the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2148 that calls for this strategic review’s full and immediate implementation and provides in particular that UNAMID’s mandate be refocused on three priorities – protection of civilians, support for the inclusive political process and support for local mediations-.
During the closed consultations that followed, the members of the Security Council met around the Joint Special Representative, Mr. Chambas. The Representative of France expressed concerns about the security situation on the ground since February, with violence involving the regular army, the rebels or tribal groups, and affecting mostly the civilian population. A local, regional and national approach had to be reconciled by encouraging ceasefire and mediation’s efforts, the implementation of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur and a more global vision of conflict in Sudan. In this regard, the Representative called the Sudanese authorities to quickly implement the inclusive national dialogue announced by President Bashir.
On 18 March 2014, the Security Council met to discuss the conflict in South Sudan following up the recent violent events and the action of the UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan).
During the presentation of his report, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, expressed deep concern at the continuation of hostilities between South Sudanese parties. He condemned the provocations and obstacles from the South Sudanese government against the UNMISS. Considering this, as recommended by the Secretary-General, the UNMISS would cease its support to the South Sudanese government and focus on the protection of civilians.
During the closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the collapse of the state of South Sudan. He supported the recommendations of the Secretary-General’s report which included a refocusing of the UNMISS action on its priority missions. A press statement by Luxembourg was adopted at the end of the consultations.
On 13 March 2014, during closed consultations held by the Security Council, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Head of the UN Peacekeeping Operations Department, presented the strategic review of the African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (UNAMID).
The Permanent Representative of France supported the strategic priorities proposed by the Secretary-General: the protection of civilians, the political mediation and humanitarian aid. More specifically, the meeting considered the possible reduction of the UNAMID mission which is, as of today, the second most important peacekeeping mission in terms of peacekeeping soldiers and financial costs. The next report from the Secretary-General on the matter is expected due on 16 April.
On 12 March 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the situation in Sudan and the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, and Mr. Menkerios, Special Representative to the African Union, briefed the Council.
The Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the seriousness of the crisis in South Sudan that froze any possibility of progress in the settlement of cross border disputes between Sudan and South Sudan. He called for an overall review of the United Nations presence in the region.
On 14 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement welcoming the resumption of negotiations on 13 February between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement–North (SPLM-N) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, under the auspices of the African Union High-level Implementation Panel (AUHIP) and the parties’ reported commitment to the talks. The members of the Security Council underscored their calls upon the Government of Sudan and SPLM-N to cease hostilities, engage in direct and constructive talks without conditions, and make the necessary concessions to reach agreement on ending the conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States of Sudan in accordance with provisions of United Nations Security Council resolution 2046 (2012).
On 13 February 2014, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it expressed it support to the IGAD (Intergovernmental Authority on Development) mediation effort and welcomed the commencement of the second round of the political talks between South Sudan leaders on 11 February.
On 11 February 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the situation in Sudan and the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Ms Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General in charge of Humanitarian Affairs, and Ms Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General, briefed the Council. On the situation in Sudan, the Permanent Representative of France supported the continuation of talks between SPLM-North and the Government of Sudan under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). Mr Araud stated that he encouraged the creation of a commission of inquiry and supported the African Union’s initiative to investigate the crimes committed during clashes between the Sudanese government and the SPLM-North. On South Sudan, the Permanent Representative worried about the level of violence reported by UN representatives as well as about the situation of IDPs. He commended the efforts of UNMISS which provided shelter to the internally displaced.
On 11 February 2014, the Security Council met in private consultations to discuss the implementation of the 1591 sanctions regime in Darfur. The Permanent representative of Argentina and head of the sanctions committee, Maria Cristina Perceval, gave an account of the work of the sanctions committee as well as of the situation on the ground following her visit to Khartoum. The Permanent representative of France expressed concern at the worsening of the situation in Darfur. He regretted that Sudan was not cooperating more in the implementation of the sanctions. He expressed concern about repeated attacks against UNMID convoys. He called for a national dialogue in Sudan. He supported the renewal of the mandate of the panel of experts by the adoption of resolution 2138 on 13 February 2014.
On 23 January 2014, Mr Hervé Ladsous, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the Security Council on activities of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation (UNAMID) in Darfur as well as on the security and humanitarian situation in the region. Mr Ladsous exposed deep concern at the increasing number of peace keepers killed in Darfur in 2013. He called on the Government of Sudan to investigate on those crimes. Mr Ladsous reported slow progress on the peace process since the 2011 Doha agreements. The humanitarian situation deteriorated in 2013 with a more difficult access to resources and increased population displacements. During closed consultations, the French Permanent Representative regretted the deterioration of the security situation in Darfur which exposed especially the civilian population. He deplored the stalemate of the peace process and encouraged a robust action by UNAMID for the protection of civilians.
On 23 January 2014, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the briefing on the crisis in South Sudan by Mr. Simonovic, Under Secretary-General for Human Rights, and, by VTC, by Mrs. Hilde Johnson, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).
The permanent representative of France expressed concerns about the particularly alarming abuses reported by Mr. Simonovic, which could not go unpunished. In this regard, he welcomed the decision of the African Union to put in place a committee of inquiry and called for its rapid deployment. All parties to the conflict should also ensure immediate and unhindered humanitarian access to populations in need. The permanent representative condemned the continuing violations of the UNMISS Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) by the authorities of South Sudan, as well as the violent campaign against UNMISS and the Special Representative, and reaffirmed its support to UNMISS, whose action allowed to avoid larger scale massacres. Finally, he recalled that the signature of a cease fire agreement was only a starting point. It was its implementation that would constitute the real test of the parties’ good faith, with the holding of a real inclusive political dialogue. The Security Council needed to send a message to the parties to support its launching without delay.
Following the meeting, the Security Council adopoted a Press statment.
On 9 January 2014, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear a briefing on the situation in Sudan and South Sudan by Mr. Hervé Ladsous, Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping, and, by VTC, by Mr. Haile Menkerios, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for Sudan and South Sudan, as well as by Mrs. Hilde Johnson, UN Special Representative in Juba and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS).
The permanent representative of France noted an appalling situation, both parties continuing to prefer the military option. It continued to have a daily direct effect on the deterioration of the humanitarian situation, with the death of thousands of innocent people and the increase of the number of refugees on the UNMISS bases. The ethnic dimension also continued to be a huge concern. The danger of a civil war threatened the country and the United Nations should send a firm message to both parties, namely their intransigence over the protection of civilians and their fight against massive human rights violations. The permanent representative welcomed the fact that the first reinforcement troops of UNMISS, such as Nepalese and Kenyans, were en route but it was primarily the job of parties on the ground to stop violence.
Following this meeting, the President of the Security Council made on 10 January 2014 a press statement.
On 30 December 2013, the Security Council met in closed consultations to be briefed on the security and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan by Mrs Hilde Johnson, UN Special Representative in Juba and head of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). The Under Secretary General for Peacekeeping, Mr Hervé Ladsous, also briefed Council members on the ongoing redeployments of troops authorized by the Council in order to reinforce UNMISS.
After the meeting, the Permanent Representative of France addressed the press as President of the Council.
The Security Council also agreed on a press statement on the situation in South Sudan.
23 December 2013: The UN Security Council held an emergency meeting behind closed doors on the crisis in South Sudan. Mr Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary General for Peacekeeping, briefed Security Council members on the worsening security and humanitarian situation on the ground. He also referred to the request -made a few minutes earlier by the Secretary General to the UNSC- to authorize a reinforcement of UNMISS by 5500 peacekeepers and 6 helicopters (through redeployments from other PKOs).
During the meeting, the Permanent Representative of the US circulated a draft Security Council resolution aimed at authorizing the SG to reinforce UNMISS.
The Permanent Representative of France assured UNMISS of the strong support of the UNSC and raised concern at violence in South Sudan. He supported the US draft resolution and called for its swift adoption in order to allow the Secretary General to respond to the situation on the ground without delay.
Read the remarks to the press made by the Permanent Representative of France following the meeting.
On 20 December 2013, Mr. Edmond Mulet, Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, briefed in closed consultations the Security Council on the situation in South Sudan. The Permanent Representative of France expressed concerns about the gravity of the situation. The political crisis had an ethnic dimension which was a source of increasing concern. Every effort should be made to avoid the evolution into a civil war. The permanent representative expressed his full support for the mediation efforts of the countries in the region and welcomed the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) approach. An immediate reaction by the Security Council was necessary.
Following this meeting, a presidential statement was adopted.
The complete timeline of events here.
France is deeply committed to supporting United Nations and African Union efforts to resolve the crisis in Darfur, which broke out in early 2003. The conflict in Darfur has claimed at least 200,000 civilian lives and caused the flight of over two million displaced persons and refugees.
MINUAD: Hybrid UN-AU Mission in Darfur
France, in conjunction with the United Kingdom, initiated Resolution 1769 (2007), which created the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), in order to end the conflict between rebel movements and the Sudanese army and militias backed by the Sudanese government. 23,000 military and police are deployed under UNAMID (26,000 are authorised), taking over from 7000 soldiers of the African Union Mission in Sudan, whose mandate ended on 31 December 2007.
The Security Council, through resolution 2003 (2011) extended the mandate of UNAMID for 12 months, until 31 July 2012.
Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria has been the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur since 1 January 2010.
UN - AU Mediation in Darfur
France has actively participated in international efforts headed by the joint mediation of the United Nations and African Union in order to consolidate the ceasefire and find a sustainable solution for the Darfur crisis. To this end, both organizations appointed Mr. Djibril Bassolé, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Burkina-faso, as mediator in June 2008. An "All Darfur Stakeholders Conference" took place at the end of May 2011 in Doha. At the initiative of the mediator Djibril Bassole, the participants agreed on the establishment of an internal process of dialogue and consultation in Darfur which should be the basis for a permanent cease-fire in the region. In July 2011, Mr. Ibrahim Gambari, the Joint African Union-United Nations Special Representative for Darfur, was appointed acting Joint Chief Mediator in Darfur, in place of Mr. Djibril Bassolé.
Arms embargo and individual sanctions
Since 2004, the Security Council has maintained an arms embargo on weapons bound for Darfur (resolution 1556).
resolution 1591 (2005) set up a Sanctions Committe (called 1591 Committee) in charge of overseeing the embargo on Darfur and designate individuals and entities for individual sanctions (assets freeze, travel ban). The Committee is assisted by a panel of experts. Since 2006, individual sanctions have been imposed on perpetrators of violent acts in Darfur.
The president of the Sanctions Committee submits a report to the Security Council every three months.
Resolution 1945 (October 2010, adopted by 14 votes with one abstention from China) extended until 19 October 2011 the mandate of the Panel.
Resolution 1945 makes it compulsory for States to notify the Sanctions Committee of all arms transfers to Darfur under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and requires that all deliveries of weapons to Sudan be subject to assurances concerning the end users so as to prevent their diversion into Darfur.
The EU for its part introduced a total ban on arm sales to Sudan.
Work of the International Criminal Court
In 2005, the Security Council requested that the International Criminal Court (ICC) investigate the massive human rights violations in Darfur. France, along with the other members of the Security Council party to the Statute of the International Criminal Court, supported resolution 1593 (2005), which submitted this case to the ICC. This Resolution constituted the first time the Security Council had brought a case before the ICC under the Rome Statute (1998). The ICC issued warrants for the arrest of the Sudanese Minister for Humanitarian Affairs, Ahmad Harun, and a regional Janjaweed militia leader, Ali Kushayb, on 2 May 2007. On 4 March 2009, Pre-Trial Chamber I of the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued a warrant for the arrest of Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, President of Sudan, for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Another arrest warrant was issued on 12 July 2010 against President Bashir for genocide (the first warrant for genocide by the ICC).
In the six-monthly debate in the Security Council on 3 June 2013 on the follow-up of resolution 1593, the Chief Prosecutor of the ICC, Fatou Bensouda, again deplored that the Sudanese government was not cooperating with the ICC, contrary to the provisions of resolution 1593 (2005). She said "with a deep sense of frustration and even despair" to the Council that crimes continued to be committed in Darfur, including some involving personalities already prosecuted by the International Criminal Court. She called on the Council to act on the basis of information collected by the ICC to allow the arrest of Omar el-Bashir, or at least prevent him from traveling.
United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
A new UN peacekeeping mission was created in June 2011, to deal with the situation in the disputed region of Abyei, which lies between Sudan and South Sudan.
On 27 June 2011, following the occupation of the area of Abyei by Sudan’s army on 21 May and the subsequent agreement of demilitarization concluded between the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement on 20 June, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1990 which authorizes the deployment, for a period of six months, of the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), with a maximum of 4,200 peacekeepers.
Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA the mandate, in particular, to monitor and verify the redeployment of the belligerents, to ensure security in the area, to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid and the rapid return of displaced persons. Resolution 1990 gives UNISFA a robust mandate, directs the parties to facilitate the rapid return of displaced persons, and requests that effective human rights monitoring be carried out.
The independence of the Republic of South-Sudan was proclaimed on 9 July 2011. On 14 July 2011 the General Assembly adopted resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations. A new UN peacekeeping mission was set up in South Sudan on 8 July.
South Sudan’s flag raising ceremony following its admission to the United Nations in the presence of Joseph Deiss (left) President of the sixty-fifth session of the General Assembly, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (centre); Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon (right) Vice President of the Republic of South Sudan (Franceonu photo/ Elliot Bellanger)
Referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan
A referendum on the self-determination of South Sudan started on 9 January 2011, in accordance with the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement. It proceeded "in a transparent and credible way", as the French permanent representative pointed out at the Security Council on 18 January. The vote resulted in 98.83% in favor of independence, according to final results released on 7 February 2011.
The international community was mobilized to ensure the successful implementation of the results during the transition period leading to the declaration of independence on 9 July 2011.
A high-level meeting on Sudan was held on 24 September 2010 in New York on the sidelines of the 65th General Assembly. The meeting was chaired by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and was attended by both Sudanese parties (Mr Ali Osman Taha, vice-president of Sudan and Mr Salva Kiir Mayardit president South Sudan), as well as Jean Ping President of the AU Commission, and a dozen heads of state and government, including President Obama.
The main purpose of the meeting was to highlight the importance of the full implementation of the final phase of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 (CPA), including the scheduled referenda on self-determination in South Sudan and on the status of Abyei. A final communiqué was issued which insists on the date of 9 January for the referendum.
The Security Council met on several occasions ahead of referendum: on 16 December 2010 (See intervention of France), during which a presidential statement was adopted (PRST/2010/28); on 16 November 2010, the Security Council held a ministerial meeting chaired by British Foreign Minister, William Hague, and in the presence of Mr. Ali Karti, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sudan, Mr. Pagam Amum, Secretary General of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), Mr Ban Ki-moon, Secretary General of the UN, Hillary Clinton, U.S. Secretary of State and adopted a Presidential Statement (See the intervention of France).
United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) and United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
The UN has been present in the South of Sudan (what is now South-Sudan) since 2005. Resolution 1590 (24 March 2005) established the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS). The United Nations deployed a large operation to support the implementation of the "Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between North and South Sudan, signed on 9 January 2005 in Nairobi.
The mandate of UNMIS, which seeked to protect civilians, was extended (through resolution 1978 of 27 April 2011) until the independence of South Sudan on 9 July 2011. Almost 10.000 troops were deployed as part of this mission.
On 8 July 2011, the Security Council, with resolution 1996 adopted unanimously, established for one year the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS). It gives UNMISS the mandate to consolidate peace and security in the Country, in particular by fostering longer-term state-building and economic development. It also gives UNMISS a robust mandate for protecting civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. UNMISS will consist of up to 7,000 military personnel and up to 900 civilian police personnel. UNMISS replaces UNMIS in the areas where UNMIS operated on what is now the new State of the Republic of South Sudan.
On 11 July 2011, the Security Council adopted resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw UNMIS.
Since 29 July 2011, Mr Haile Menkerios of South Africa is the UN Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan.
— Under the French presidency of the Security Council, the Council travelled to Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya from 19 to 24 May 2011. In Sudan, the members of the Security Council went to Khartoum, Juba and Wau. During the visit, violence erupted in Abyei. On 22 May 2011, Mr. Gerard Araud, President of the Security Council read a press statement on the situation in Abyei on behalf of the Council.
— The Security Council traveled to Uganda and Sudan from 5 to 10 October 2010. In Sudan, the Council went to Juba, where they met with the President of the Autonomous Region of Southern Sudan, Mr Salva Kiir. The Council also traveled to Al Fasher, headquarters of the UN- AU mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and to Khartoum, where meetings took place with the Sudanese Foreign minister, Mr Ali Karti, and Vice-President Taha. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative Permanent Representation of France to the UN, represented France during the trip.
11 December 2013 - Security Council - Sudan/Report of the ICC Prosecutor - Statement by Mr. Gérard Araud, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
5 June 2013 - Security Council - Sudan/Report of the ICC Prosecutor – Statement by Mr. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
13 December 2012 - Security Council - Sudan ICC Report - Statement by Mr. Martin Briens, Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations
More French statements here.
3 April 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2148
18 March 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - the situation in Sudan and South Sudan under resolution 2046 (2012) and on the situation in Abyei
14 February 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - resumption of negotiations between the Government of Sudan and the SPLM-N
13 February 2014 - Security Council - Press statement - support to the IGAD mediation effort
13 February 2014 - Security Council - Resolution 2138 - Renewal of the mandate of the panel of experts
23 January 2014 - Security Council - Press statment on the situation in South Sudan
10 January 2014 - Security Council - Press statement on the situation in South Sudan.
30 December 2013 - Security Council - Press statement
20 December 2013 - Security council - Presidential statement
17 December 2013 - Security Council - Press statement Fighting in Juba
25 November 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2126 which extends the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) for six months.
14 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Attacks against UNAMID
11 October 2013 - Security Council - Press statement - Polio vaccination in Sudan
23 August 2013 - Security Council - Presidential Statement on the relations between Sudan and South Sudan.
30 July 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2113 renewing for one year UNAMID’s mandate
15 July 2013 - Security Council - Press statement condemning the attack that killed seven UNAMID staff members
29 May 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2104, renewing UNISFA mandate for 6 months.
6 May 2013 - Security Council - Press statement
14 February 2013 - Security Council - Resolution 2091 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanctions committee
16 November 2012- Security Council - Resolution 2075 extending the mandate of the UNISFA until 31 May 2012
31 August 2012 - Security Council - Presidential statement
5 July 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2057 which extended the mandate of UNMISS
7 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2047 renewing for six months the mandate of UNISFA
2 May 2012 - Security Council - Resolution 2046
12 April 2012 - Security Council - Sudan and South Sudan - Presidential statement
17 February 2012 - Resolution 2035 renewing for one year the mandate of the expert panel of the 1591 sanction committee
22 December 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2032 - Renewing the mandate of UNISFA
29 July 2011 - Security Council - Resolution 2003 renewing the mandate of UNAMID.
14 July 2011 - General Assembly - Resolution 308 admitting South Sudan as the 193rd member of the United Nations
13 July 2011 - Resolution 1999 of the Security Council recommending the admission of the Republic of South Sudan as member of the United Nations.
11 July 2011 - Resolution 1997 deciding to withdraw the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
8 July 2011 - Resolution 1996 - Establishing the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
27 June 2011 - Resolution 1990 - Establishing the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
22 May 2011 - The situation in Abyei, Sudan - Press Statement by Mr Gérard Araud, President of the Security Council
27 April 2011 - Resolution 1978 - Renewing the UNMIS mandate
14 October 2010 - Resolution 1945 (2010)
24 September 2010 - Final communiqué of the high-level meeting on Sudan
30 July 2010 - Resolution 1935 (2010) - Extension of UNAMID mandate
25 February 2010 - Press statement by Gérard Araud, President of the UN Security Council
30 July 2009 - Resolution 1881 (2009) - Extension of UNAMID mandate
31 July 2007 - Resolution 1769 (2007) - Defining UNAMID’s mandate
31 March 2005 - Resolution 1593 (2005) - Referring the situation in Darfur to the ICC
29 March 2005- Resolution 1591 (2005) - Imposing an embargo on the parties to the conflict in Darfur
24 March 2005 - Resolution 1590 (2005) - Establishing UNMIS
30 July 2004 - Resolution 1556 (2004)
Sudan file on France-Diplomatie