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- In a debate in the Security Council on the situation in Iraq on 18 June 2009, Mr Mistura (who was attending his last meeting as SRSG), the representative of France recalled the essential role played by UNAMI in electoral matters through its effective action in support of the Independent High Electoral Commission to ensure a smooth electoral process, and on the question of disputed internal boundaries, particularly in the Kirkuk region.

- On 16 November 2009, after a meeting attended by Mr Ad Melkert, Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Iraq, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement in which it reaffirmed its support to UNAMI, welcomed the agreement reached on 8 November in the Iraqi Council of Representatives on amendments to the electoral law of Iraq (paving the way for parliamentary elections in January 2010), condemned the series of terrorist attacks that occurred on 19 August and 25 October 2009 in Baghdad which caused numerous deaths, injuries and damage, including to Iraqi Government institutions. It also welcomed the recent visit of UN officials to Iraq for preliminary consultations related to Iraq’s security and sovereignty (in a reference to the visit to Bagdad on 2 November of Assistant Secretary-general Mr Oscar Fernandez-Taranco).

- On 21 December 2009, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1905, which extends for one year the provisions for the management of the Development Fund for Iraq and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board.

- On 16 February 2010, following a public meeting of the Security Council, during which Mr. Ad Melkert, the UNSG Special Representative for Iraq and the Permanent Representative of Iraq to the UN made statements, and following private consultations, the (French) President of the Security Council made the following remarks to the press:

"The members of the Security Council heard this morning a briefing from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr Melkert, on the situation in Iraq, particularly with regards to the preparation of the legislative elections to be held on 7 March 2010. Council members expressed their appreciation for the work of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq, in particular assistance to the government of Iraq for the preparation of elections.

"Council members stressed the importance of sovereignty, territorial integrity and unity of Iraq. Council members recalled the importance of the preparation and the holding of elections that are free, fair, transparent, legitimate and inclusive with broad participation in order for the results to reflect the will of the Iraqi people and be accepted by them. "

"The members of the Council stressed the need to respect the rule of law, as well as to pursue efforts of the Iraqi government towards consensus and reconciliation.

"And finally the members of the Council reiterated their condemnation of all terrorist attacks in Iraq."

- On 26 February 2010, in a presidential statement, the Security Council expressed its satisfaction with the commitments made by Iraq to comply with the international norms of disarmament and non-proliferation.

The Council stressed in particular the importance for Iraq to ratify the Additional Protocol to the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency. It underlined "its readiness, once the necessary steps have been taken, to review, with a view towards lifting, the restrictions imposed by its resolutions 687 (1991) and 707 (1991) on weapons of mass destruction and civil nuclear activities."

The spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs made the following statement on 1 March 2010: "France has spared no efforts in preparing this text which was adopted under the French Presidency of the UNSC. We welcome this first step in the concrete implementation of resolution 1859 which aims to enable Iraq to regain the same international status that it had before resolution 661 of 6 August 1990. We believe this constitutes a new step on the way to full sovereignty of Iraq. France, as the President of the Republic has repeatedly stressed, fully supports this process. "

- On 31 March 2010, the Security Council adopted a press statement in which it welcomed the announcement of the provisional results of the Iraqi parliamentary election by the Independent High Electoral Commission of Iraq’s (IHEC) on 26 March. The statement added that the Security Council looked forward to the certification of the results by the Supreme Court. It also affirmed the Council’s “confidence in the overall integrity of the election” and called for the political entities to “respect the certified election results and the choices of the Iraqi people”. The members of the Security Council also urged Iraq’s political leaders to “avoid inflammatory rhetoric and actions.” and to look forward to the formation of the new Government “in a spirit of cooperation and respect for national unity”. The Security Council commended the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) and the role played by the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Iraq, Ad Melkert, “in providing technical assistance and support throughout the electoral process”.

- On 5 August 2010, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1936, extending the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) until 31 July 2011.

In a press statement, released on 4 August 2010, the Council called for the formation of a government that represented “the will of the Iraqi people and their hope for a strong, independent, unified and democratic Iraq” after a briefing by Mr. Ad Melkert, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Iraq.

- On 10 November 2010, the Security Council met in consultations at the request of Minister Bernard Kouchner, after a series of attacks, particularly the one targeting the Christian community on 31 October with the attack of a church in Baghdad which left 46 civilians dead. The President of the Council made a press statement on behalf of the Council, and the permanent representative of France spoke to the press.

- On 15 December 2010, the Security Council held a meeting on Iraq chaired by U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden (the United States holding the Presidency of the Security Council in December), with the participation of the Secretary-General and Iraqi Foreign Minister Zebari. Three resolutions were adopted on this occasion in order to lift some of the restrictions adopted under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq in 1990 and the Gulf War of 1991 (see below the "Background" section). A presidential statement (PRST/2010/27) was also adopted. (Read the statement by the French permanent representative).

- On 28 July 2011, the Security Council adopted resolution 2001 renewing the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) until 31 July 2012.

- On 6 December 2011, the Security Council met to hear a first report by Mr Martin Kobler, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Iraq and Head of UNAMI.

Speaking on behalf of the Secretary-General, Mr. Kobler condemned the attacks against Shia pilgrims that occurred the day before in Hilla. Concerns remained over the security situation in Iraq despite the significant progress made, as the country faced almost daily terrorist attacks. The dialogue with the Kuwaiti government had to be pursued in order to resolve the pending bilateral issues. UNAMI stood ready to bring support to economic recovery, institutions building and good governance.

Private consultations followed, where the representative of France stressed the importance of UNAMI’s mandate in the context of withdrawal of the American forces from Iraq. Expressing France’s concern over a humanitarian risk as the Ashraf camp’s closure came closer, he called for all stakeholders to find a peaceful solution, in accordance with international law.

- On 15 December 2011, the Security Council heard in closed consultations the report of Ambassador Tarasov, High-Level Coordinator on the issue of missing Kuwaitis and property seized during the Gulf War. Mr. Tarasov reported progress on the issue of missing persons following the establishment of joint fact-finding missions under the auspices of the ICRC. He also noted the creation of a High Level Inter-Ministerial Committee to coordinate the response of the Iraqi government on the issue of missing Kuwaiti archives.

- On 17 January 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear reports from Mrs. Maria Eugenia Casar, Assistant Secretary-General/ Controller and Mrs Gabriele Kraatz-Wadsack, Chief, Weapons of Mass Destruction Branch, Office for Disarmament Affairs, on the Development Fund for Iraq and weapons of mass destruction.

Regarding the control of weapons of mass destruction, despite its provisional implementation by the Iraqi government since February 2010, the Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement had not yet been ratified. Even though the supervision of the United Nations Compensation Fund of Kuwait had been successfully taken over by the Iraq’s Committee of Financial Experts, an autonomous system had yet to be implemented so as to monitor the non-monetary payments.

The French representative recalled the obligation for Iraq to fulfill its commitments towards Kuwait, as the issue of the borders’ demarcation between the two countries remained.

- On 6 March 2012, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear a report from Lynn Pascoe after the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Iraqi authorities and the UN mission in Iraq, UNAMI, on the resettlement of refugees after the closure of Camp Ashraf.

- On 10 April 2012, Special Representative of UN Secretary General Martin Kobler reported to the Security Council on the activity of the UN mission for Iraq, UNAMI.

- On 19 June 2012, the Security Council heard the briefing of the Ambassador Tasarov, the Secretary-General’s High-Level Coordinator, on the issue of missing Kuwaitis and property seized during the Gulf War.

The Representative of France welcomed the improvement of the relations between Iraq and Kuwait, notably regarding high-level meetings between the two parties. Tangible progresses on the missing persons were reported, but substantial results on the property seized, notably the restitution of Kuwaiti national archives, were still needed. The Representative of France suggested that the issue was transferred to the United Nations Mission in Iraq, and reiterated its wish that question of Iraq would no longer be treated under chapter VII.

- On 19 July 2012, Martin Kobler, Special Representative of the UN for Iraq, briefed the Security Council about the recent developments in Iraq and the action of UNAMI.

During closed consultations, the Representative of France welcomed the improvement of the relations between Iraq and the Arab countries, in particular with Kuwait. The more pressing challenges the Iraqi authorities had to address remained the improvement of the security situation and the end of the political stalemate that had been blocking the country for 7 months. On the Ashraf camp, the Representative of France expressed his concern over the blocking of the transfer of the residents to Liberty camp and called the PMOI to fully cooperate with the Iraqi authorities, in accordance with 25 December 2011 memorandum.

- On 25 July 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2061 renewing for one year the mandate of the UN mission in Iraq, UNAMI.

- On 29 November 2012, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s Special Representative for Iraq Mr. Martin Kobler briefed the Security Council on the situation in the country.

During the following private consultations, the French Representative said that the reintegration of Iraq within the international community was an objective of the Council. He requested Iraq to fulfill its obligations under chapter VII, especially concerning the respect of the border with Kuwait.

- On 21 March 2013, the Security Council met to hear the report of Mr. Martin Kobler, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNAMI. Mr. Kobler noted recent positive developments between Iraq and Koweit and welcomed the resumption of flights between Baghdad and Kuwait City.

During the private consultations that followed, the representative of France expressed concerns about the political and security situation in the country. He also stressed that the work of UNAMI was more necessary than ever to encourage the Iraqi authorities to reinforce institutions and the rule of law.

- On 27 June 2013, the Security Council adopted resolution 2107, placing the issue of missing goods and persons during the conflict with Kuwait under chapter VI of the Charter (non-binding measures), marking the progress made by Iraq in the normalization of its relations with its neighbor.

- On 15 July 2013, the Security Council held a debate and heard Mr. Kobler, Special Representative of the United Nations for Iraq and Head of UNAMI, on the recent developments of the Iraqi political and security transition.

After this presentation, the Security Council met in closed consultations. Its members welcomed the improvements registered these past few months, especially in the relations between Iraq / Kuwait and Iraq / Kurdistan. However, the representative of France expressed serious concerns about the growing destabilization of Iraq by the Syrian conflict and called for the establishment of an inclusive political dialogue to work effectively for a national reconciliation.

- On 24 July 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2110 extending the mandate of UNAMI, the UN mission in Iraq.

- 4 September 2013. Jeffrey Feltman, Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, presented to the Security Council his “Monthly Horizon Scanning” entirely dedicated to the Middle-East. During these private consultations, he mentioned Ashraf, the Iraqi camp for Iranian refugees (in the north-east of Bagdad) where more than fifty people were savagely assassinated on September 1st.

During this meeting, France strongly condemned the violence perpetrated against the refugees of the Ashraf camp, while expressing its condolences to the victims’ families. Moreover, the representative of France recalled that it is the Iraqi authorities’ responsibility to ensure the security of this camp and to provide the necessary medical assistance to the injured. Finally, France encouraged the Iraqi authorities to launch an independent and in-depth to ensure perpetrators will be prosecuted.

- On 25 November 2013, the Security Council met to hear the report of Mr. Nickolay Mladenov, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNAMI, on UNAMI, the latest developments in Iraq and the relations between Iraq and Kuwait. Noting the deterioration of the security situation, Mr. Mladenov encouraged the international community to oppose all forms of violence against civilians. Action needed to be taken to redress human rights violations. The Special Representative also recalled that the current Syrian conflict fed sectarian tensions and constituted a major security and humanitarian threat, with more than 250 000 Syrian refugees in Iraq. Finally, he stressed the importance of promoting socio-economic development to combat terrorism.

During the closed consultations that followed, the representative of France expressed concerns about the political and security situation in the country, bearing in mind the fact that violence rose considerably in the last few months. If he welcomed the adoption of the new electoral law in view of the April 2014 parliamentary elections, none of the main political challenges had been resolved. In this regard, he called for a more inclusive political system in view of working towards national reconciliation. The human rights situation was also a major source of concern, especially the death penalty and the widespread practice of torture in detention facilities. On Iraq and Kuwait, the permanent representative welcomed the ongoing improvement of their relations. Iraq must remain engaged, especially with regard to the issue of missing Kuwaiti persons and property. Finally, UNAMI should continue to play its role as an intermediate among political actors and to involve itself on the “political reconciliation” front of its mandate.

After the consultations, the President of the Security Council made a press statement on violence in Iraq

- On 9 January 2014, the Security Council met in closed consultations to hear the report of Mr. Nickolay Mladenov, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNAMI, on the situation in Al Anbar Governorate.

The permanent representative of France expressed great concerns about the clashes in Fallujah and Ramadi, after the Islamic State in Iraq and in the Levant took advantage of the insurgency situation to take control of these cities. He reaffirmed France’s support to the Iraqi authorities in their battle against Al-Qaeda. He also emphasized his extreme concern on the security situation. 2013 has been the deadliest year, with nearly 10, 000 deaths in terrorist activities for which the Islamic State in Iraq and in the Levant was the main author. The permanent representative of France stressed the need for the Iraqi government to meet the legitimate claims of the citizens of the province of Al-Anbar and of the rest of Iraq. Only the inclusion of all components of society in political life and in the Iraqi institutions could allow providing a sustainable solution to the current instability. He also reiterated his commitment to the holding of pluralist elections on 30 April. Concerned about the situation of civilians trapped or fleeing the combat zones, the permanent representative of France took note of the undertaking given by the Iraqi Prime Minister to protect the civilians. This required a proportionate use of force during military operations. The Iraqi government should also work with the United Nations to ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance. The permanent representative of France finally stressed the key role UNAMI should play in this crisis. It should remain fully involved to encourage dialogue and accords among the different components of Iraqi society.

Following this meeting, the President of the Security Council adopted on 10 January 2014 a presidential statement on violence in Iraq.

- The Security Council met on 27 March 2014 to examine the situation in Iraq, where national elections will take place in April.

The Special Representative of the Secretary-General and head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI), Mr Nickolay Mladenov, and the Permanent Representative of Iraq, Mr Hamid Al-Bayati expressed concern at the tense political atmosphere and the terrorist threat on the country and the region.

During closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France condemned the violent acts in Iraq which made 2013 the most fatal year since 2008. He encouraged UNAMI to keep on working in support of a political dialogue.



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