On 4 May 2011, the Security Council held a public debate to hear a report by Mr. Moreno-Ocampo, prosecutor of the ICC, pursuant to resolution 1970 which called for the prosecutor to brief the Council within two months.
In his report, the prosecutor confirmed that attacks by security forces against peaceful demonstrators and all those suspected of being "disloyal to the regime" in Tripoli and other cities had been, as of 17 February 2011, systematic and widespread, and that civilians suspected of being associated with events were being arbitrarily detained, abducted and tortured. In the meeting, the prosecutor announced that he would request the arrest warrant against three Libyans for crimes against humanity.
In his statement, the permanent representative of France said: "The judicial process is moving forward. As the prosecuror explained, the ICC will only prosecute the main perpetrators, those who organised, ordered of financed these crimes."
On 9 May 2011, the Security Council met to hear a public briefing by Valerie Amos, Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator. It then held private consultations.
On 31 May 2011, the Security Council met for a public briefing followed by private consultations to hear a briefing by the Secretariat, pursuant to resolution 1973 which requests that such a briefing be done every month.
On 15 June 2011, Mr. Hamady Ould Hamady, Mauritanian Minister of Foreign Affairs spoke before the Security Council on behalf of the ministerial delegation of the ad hoc high-level committee of the African Union on the Libyan crisis. The Security Council then met for a private interactive dialogue. Coming out of the Security Council, Gerard Araud, Permanent Representative of France made remarks to the press in French referring to the Libyan situation and the role played by the African Union.
On 11 July 2011, the Security Council met in private consultations in the presence of Mr. Al Khatib, UN Special Envoy for Libya.
The Security Council met in consultations on 19 August 2011 to hear reports from Abdelilah Al-Khatib, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, Navi Pillay, High Commissioner for Human Rights and Philippe Lazzarini, Deputy Director at the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
On 25 August 2011, the Security Council members reached an agreement allowing the Sanctions Committee to unfreeze 1.5 billion US dollars of Libyan assets at the request of the United States, in order to cover extraordinary expenses as provided by resolution 1970. These funds are intended to cover expenses such as health, education and "emergency food needs."
On 30 August 2011, the United Nations Secretary-General briefed the Security Council on the situation in Libya. Ban Ki-moon indicated that the potential role of the UN in the country after the conflict had been discussed with the Libyan authorities, and that these discussions would continue during the Friends of Libya Conference, to be held in Paris on 1 September. The Secretary-General also stressed that many challenges remained: the humanitarian situation, in particular, required an urgent response. Ban Ki-moon called on members of the Security Council to respond to the financing requests issued by the transitional authorities.
The Security Council then met in consultations with Ian Martin, Special Adviser on Post-Conflict Planning on Libya.
On 9 September 2011, the Security Council met in consultations to hear a briefing by Mr. Ian Martin, Special Adviser on post-conflict planning, returning from a mission in Libya to assess the situation. Security Council members discussed together the possible establishment of a UN mission in that country in particular to provide international support to the efforts of its new authorities and population to undertake its reconstruction.
On 16 September 2011, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2009 which allows the creation of UNMIL, a United Nations political mission to assist Libya in the reconstruction of its institutions. Resolution also lifted sanctions and allowed the National Transitional Council to access frozen funding to allow the economic construction of Libya. The text however maintained the no-fly zone and the authorisation to use force provided by resolution 1973. In his statement, the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations pointed that "the country is still in the middle of fighting, there has been violence and law and order has partly collapsed. It is very important to build an inclusive political process. The Libyan authorities have taken this commitment but also to restore law and order, to defend Human rights and to put an end to the violence".
On 19 September 2011, the United Nations Secretary-General appointed Ian Martin (United Kingdom) as head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) and UN Secretary General Special Representative for Libya. Mr. Georg Charpentier (Finland) was appointed Acting Deputy Special Representative.
On 26 September 2011, the Security Council met to hear the reports of Mr. Lynn Pascoe, Deputy Secretary General for Political Affairs and Mr José Felipe Moraes Cabral, Permanent Representative of Portugal to the United Nations and president of the sanctions committee established by resolution 1970.
Back from Tripoli where he had prepared the deployment of UNMIL (200 people by the end of 2011), the representative of the Secretary-General expressed his concern, in particular on the dissemination of weapons, including surface to air missiles and chemical weapons, and the violences against sub-Saharan migrants.
This meeting was also attended by Mr. Mahmoud Jibril, Executive Chairman of the National Transitional Council (CNT) of Libya. The Security Council then met on the matter in private consultations.
On 21 October 2011, at the request of the Russian Federation, the Security Council met in closed consultations to discuss the situation in Libya.
On 24 October 2011, on the occasion of the monthly Security Council debate on the Middle East, the Permanent Representative of France welcomed the fall of Colonel Gaddafi’s regime and called upon the Libyan authorities to continue to work towards a democratic and pluralistic Libya under the Rule of law and respectful of the fundamental freedoms.
On 26 October 2011, the Security Council heard a report by Mr Ian Martin, Special Representative of the Secretary-General to Libya, and a statement by the deputy Permanent Representative of Libya. In his report, Mr Ian Martin underlined the exceptional courage of the Libyan people and the numerous challenges that it was beginning to meet, with the necessary support of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), in particular the establishment of the Rule of Law and the control of the Libyan territory.
During the closed consultations which followed, France underscored the necessity for the international community to start lifting the sanctions decided by resolution 1973 of the Security Council and to maintain its support to the new Libyan authorities in the reconstruction of their country.
On 27 October 2011, following the proclamation of the liberation of Libya by its new authorities and the subsequent decision of NATO to halt its military operations, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2016, lifting the no-fly zone and the authorization provided by resolution 1973 to take all necessary measures to ensure the protection of civilian populations.
Following the adoption the Permanent Representative of France addressed the media and highlighted that this decision came as the normal conclusion of the "magnificent endeavour" initiated by resolution 1973 and marked the success of international commitment to the protection of civilians in Libya.
On 31 October 2011 the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2017, co-sponsored by France.
On 2 November 2011, the Security Council heard a report from Mr. Luis Moreno-Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, on Libya pursuant to resolution 1970. The Prosecutor said that investigations were underway on allegations of war crimes committed by pro-Gaddafi forces, NTC and NATO forces. He assured that these allegations would be examined impartially and independently. He also expressed concern to the protection provided by a group of mercenaries to Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi in his escape, as he was under an international arrest warrant for crimes against humanity. The prosecutor also confirmed that the Court was in indirect talks with him about his possible surrender.
In his statement, the representative of France welcomed the work accomplished by the prosecutor’s office of the International Criminal Court and stressed the importance for all members of the international community to assist the Court in the implementation of the warrants issued agzinst Saif Al-Islam Gadhafi and Abdullah al-Senussi as well as in the conduct of its investigations, in particular sexual violence.
On 11 November 2011, during closed consultations, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon briefed the Security Council on his recent trip to Libya to assess the needs of the new authorities to respond to the challenges ahead in the political and economic reconstruction of the country.
On 28 November 2011, the Security Council met to hear a report by Ian Martin, Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). Mr. Martin stressed the need for a release of the frozen funds, adding that such a decision would facilitate the improvement of the security situation in the country. Speaking on behalf of the Secretary General, Mr. Martin called for a national reconciliation process that would respect human rights. The mission’s mandate needed to be renewed for three months to facilitate the support of the international community to the new Libyan authorities.
On 2 December 2011, the Security Council unanimously approved resolution 2022, renewing for three months the mandate of UNSMIL.
On 22 December 2011, Ian Martin, Special Representative of Secretary-General and Head of UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), reported to the Security Council on the progress made by the new Libyan authorities in reconstructing the country and taking the necessary measures to prevent arms proliferation. The representative of Portugal, as chairman of the sanctions committee of Resolution 1970, presented the delisting of Libyan assets, in particular the delisting of the Libyan Central bank and the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank decided by the Security Council on 16 December.
On 25 January 2012, the Security Council heard the report of Mr. Ian Martin, Special Representative of Secretary-General and Head of Mission of United Nations support in Libya (UNSMIL), on the situation in the country. Navi Pillay, High Commissioner of the United Nations for Human Rights reported on the on the situation of prisoners and forced displaced populations during the fighting. Libyan Permanent Representative Shalgam gave a general depiction of the abuses perpetrated by the regime of Col. Kaddhafi before and during the military operations that led to his downfall, while commending the efforts of NATO in the prevention of operations that could have made casualties among the Libyan people.
On 29 February 2012, the Security Council met in the presence of the Libyan representative, Mr Abdel Rahman Shalgham, to receive a report by Mr. Ian Martin, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Libya, on the situation in the country.
Mr Martin commended the adoption by the NTC of a law on the electoral administration, including better representation of women as requested by UNSMIL. However, the success of the elections depended on the evolution of the security situation, challenged by the proliferation of weapons, the difficult integration of the former combatants into the national reconciliation process and a flow of migrants from Syria.
On 7 February 2012, the Security Council met to hear a report by Mr. Ian Martin, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Libya in the presence of the Libyan Prime Minister Mr. Abdurrahim el Keib, on the situation in the country. Aware of the challenges existing within the country, including the weapons proliferation, the protection of human rights as well as continuing the national reconciliation process, Mr el-Keib stressed that his government would focus on the restoration of justice and the strengthening of Libya’s sovereignty.
During the closed consultations that followed, the French representative expressed his approval of the proposition to renew UNSMIL for 12 months, recalling the need to support the Libyan authorities in their efforts towards a democratic transition.
On 12 March 2012, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2040 extending the mandate of UNSMIL for a period of 12 months and adjusting the regime of sanctions imposed on the country
On 10 May 2012, the Security Council met in consultations with Mr Ian Martin, Special Representative of the Secretary General in Libya to examine the evolution of the situation in the country. The representative of France pointed out the progress observed on the ground, especially in terms of democratic transition and economic recovery and congratulated Ian Martin for the work carried out by the UNSMIL. He insisted on the role of the Security Council in the democratic transition process and restated his willingness to support the Libyan authorities in their effort to stabilize and normalize the situation in the perspective of the first free elections and establishment of an elected government.
On 16 May 2012, the Security Council met in public session to hear the third report of Luis Moreno Occampo, prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), following the ICC’s seizure pursuing to resolution 1970. The prosecutor commended the cooperation of Libyan authorities with his bureau. Nevertheless, he insisted on the fact that the establishment by Libyan authorities of a global strategy to fight impunity as well as the dismantlement of illegal detention centres should remain central to their agenda.
The representative of France noted with satisfaction the ICC’s ability to act rapidly and to exercise a pressure on perpetrators. He welcomed the willingness of Libyan authorities, which efforts to act accordingly to international standards had been recognized, to handle the judgement of Saif Al-Islam Kadhafi and Abdullah Al-Senussi. France reiterated its commitment to put the fight against impunity in the country at the centre of the Council’s action.
On 2 July 2012, the Security Council held private consultations on the situation in Libya. High Commissioner Navi Pillay, stressed the positive steps that have been taken to address human rights issues, even if the situation remains of concern with, notably, acts of torture and ill-treatment in detention centers controlled by revolutionary brigades.
The representative of France welcomed the release of four ICC (International Criminal Court) judges. He reminded the need to help Libya on its path towards democracy. He reaffirmed that the NATO operation Harmattan has been precisely accomplished, avoiding hitting civilians, as had been stressed by the Libyan Prime Minister.
On 10 July 2012, the Security Council commended, in a press statement, the holding on 7 July 2012 of the first national elections in Libya in nearly half a century.
On 18 July 2012, the Security Council examined the situation in Libya with Ian Martin, Special Representative of the Secretary General on Libya. Following the elections held on 7 July 2012, the Libyan authorities now had to work on the redaction of a new constitution and the formation of a new government.
During closed consultations, the representative of France welcomed the smooth progress of the first democratic elections in Libya since 42 years. The security situation, in particular at the borders, was one of the most pressing challenges of the new authorities. In this context, the role of the UNSMIL was crucial to support the Libyan authorities in a smooth political transition, the promotion of human rights and transitional justice and to work towards the reintegration of combatants and against the arms proliferation.
On 12 September 2012, the Security Council examined the situation in Libya.
In the day following an attack on the Consulate of the United States in Benghazi, which resulted in the deaths of four American diplomatic personnel, including the US Ambassador Christopher Stevens, the under Secretary-General to the Political Affairs, M. Feltman, condemned this attack, in the name of the United Nations, and briefed the Council on the last developments of UNMIL.
During closed consultations, the Representative of France repeated the condemnation of these acts and the condolences of France to the American authorities. Libya had made significant steps towards the implementation of the rule of law, in particular after the elections that were held in July 2012, but substantial progress still had to be accomplished to guarantee the security on the whole territory.
After the consultations, the President of the Security Council pronounced a press statement in which the members of the Council condemned in the strongest terms the attack on the United States’ diplomatic mission and personnel in Benghazi.
On 23 October 2012, the first anniversary of the liberation of Libya from 42 years of dictatorship, the Security Council met to discuss the situation in the country, with a particular focus on the events taking place in Bani Walid, where government forces faced pro-Gaddafi elements.
On 7 November 2012, the Security Council met in public session to hear the report of Fatou Bensouda, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, on the situation in Libya. The Prosecutor emphasized the challenges of the Libyan political transition and the need to show the Libyan people that the international community supported its ambitions for justice.
In his [statement,-6646] the Representative of France recalled that resolution 1970, co-drafted by France, was an example of the capacity to unite and the responsiveness of the Security Council. In the face of atrocities, the international community had to send a strong message in support of the primacy of the rule of Law and the fight against impunity. The principles carried by this resolution, he recalled, were all the more topical when seen in the context of the Syrian tragedy.
On 8 November 2012, the newly appointed United Nations Secretary-General’s Special Representative in Libya and head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) in September, Mr. Tarek Mitri, briefed the Security Council in closed consultations on the democratic transition in Libya.
France praised the progress made by Libya in building modern and democratic institutions within a single year. The recent nomination of Ali Zeidan as Prime Minister represented a major step for the country. France encouraged the Security Council and UNSMIL to continue tackling the issues of national reconciliation and border control, which remained a priority.
On 28 January 2013, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General in Libya and head of UNSMIL, Mr. Tarek Mitri, briefed for the first time openly the Security council during an open briefing on the situation in the country. The security challenges remained serious, especially in Benghazi and in the East of the country, in spite of many advances in every other fields.
During the following consultations, the French representative praised the determination of the Libyans to complete their country’s hard transition after 40 years of dictatorial regime by Mouammar Gaddafi. France was confident in the work of UNSMIL, especially in its support to the redaction of the new Libyan Constitution and in helping the Libyan secure their borders.
On 14 March 2013, the Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 2095, extending for one year UNSMIL mandate.
Prior to the adoption, Mr Tarek Mitri, Secretary-General Special Representative in Libya, reasserted UNSMIL commitment to assist national authorities in achieving the democratic transition process. Libyan Prime Minister, Mr Ali Zeidan, called upon an inclusive political dialogue to promote national reconciliation for each and every Libyan.
Presenting the final report of the Panel of Experts, the Permanent Representative of Rwanda, as Chairman of the Sanctions Committee established pursuant resolution 1970, reported strong concerns on weapons proliferation from Libya which was threatening regional security given Libya’s porous borders.
Facing the importance of security issues, the representative of France stressed on, during closed consultations, the urgency for Libyan authorities to implement the Security Sector Reform (SSR) and integrate armed groups in police or armed forces.
On 23 April 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement on the attack against French Embassy in Libya, resulting in several injuries and severe damage.
French authorities strongly condemned this attack.
On 8 May 2013, Ms Fatou Bensouda, International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor, presented to the Security Council its fifth report on the implementation of resolution 1970. Following the request of the Libyan authorities to judge by themselves former Libyan leaders, the ICC had to decide whether the trials of Saïf al-Islam and Abdallah al-Senoussi fell within the competence of the Court or of the Libyan authorities. Nevertheless, wherever these trials would take place, ICC Prosecutor underlined that they were a "shining example" of the fight against impunity and the complementarity between the Court and national justice systems.
In his statement, the representative of France called upon the Security Council to deepen its cooperation with the Court and reaffirmed its support to the Prosecutor’s investigation regarding allegations of sexual crimes committed by members of Al-Qadhafi’s entourage, who might have fled the country.
On 13 May 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the deadly attack in Benghazi and urging all States to cooperate with the Libyan authorities to bring the perpetrators to justice.
On 18 June 2013, Mr. Tarek Mitri, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Libya and Head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), presented to the Security Council the recent developments of the political and security transition in Libya. He welcomed the improvements registered since the beginning of the transition in 2011, but nevertheless deplored the recent adoption of the Libya’s political isolation law voted on 5 May 2013. He also stated that persistent difficulties in both the construction of the rule of law as in border security management remained a concern and required the full support from the international community to the Libyan authorities.
Following the debate, the Security Council adopted a press statement.
On 16 September 2013, Mr. Tarek Mitri, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), presented the recent political, security and economic developments of the country to members of the Security Council. Mr. Mitri deplored the interruption of Libyan oil exports, which structurally destabilizes the Libyan economy (oil representing 90% of Libya’s GDP). He reported many cases of deaths in custody, torture and ill-treatments in prison centers. He also urged all parties to stop manipulating the country’s financial and natural resources for political purposes.
As the Chairman of the Sanctions Committee on Libya (1970 Committee), the Permanent Representative of Rwanda welcomed the concrete steps taken by the Libyan authorities in order to ensure the effective implementation of the arms embargo.
During the consultations that followed, the representative of France deplored the persistence of security problems at the borders of Libya, which could benefit terrorist groups of the Sahel region. He also condemned the recent attacks targeting foreign diplomatic institutions. He also called for a reinforcement of the state-building capabilities of UNSMIL, so that the operation can give its full support to the establishment of a Libyan justice and the rule of law.
On 4 October 2013, the Security Council adopted a press statement condemning the attack against the Russian Embassy in Tripoli, Libya, on 2 October, which resulted in intrusions into the diplomatic premises, causing serious damage.
On 4 November 2013, Mr. Tarek Mitri, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), briefed by VTC the Security Council on the implementation of resolution 2017 concerning the proliferation of weapons and related materials coming from Libyan arsenals.
The Representative of France recalled that assistance to secure stockpiles of munitions and conventional weapons was fully within UN Support Mission in Libya’s mandate. He encouraged all actors on the ground to coordinate their action to render it more operational. In particular, there was a need to encourage Libya to continue cooperating with the IAEA and to request necessary international assistance in order to secure Libyan concentrated uranium.
On 14 November 2013, Mrs Fatou Bensouda, International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor, presented to the Security Council her sixth report on the implementation of Resolution 1970.
The Prosecutor welcomed the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on task sharing between the Court and the Libyan authorities. She indicated that she was continuing her investigation into allegations of crimes committed by Gaddafi’s relatives. The adoption of the new Syrian law on transitional justice and the establishment of a “fact-finding and reconciliation Commission” may address other allegations of crimes. She welcomed reports on a new Libyan draft law recognizing rape as a “war crime”. Finally, she encouraged the Libyan authorities to implement the law adopted on April 2013 criminalizing torture, enforced disappearance and discrimination in order to remind the armed groups that the fight against impunity also applied to them.
In his statement, the Representative of France welcomed the work carried out by the Office of the ICC Prosecutor and reaffirmed its support to it. He also welcomed the determination of the Libyan authorities to pursue the democratization of the country and to assume their responsibilities. The Representative of France also reaffirmed its support to the Prosecutor’s investigation regarding allegations of crimes committed by members of Gadhafi’s entourage. He welcomed the work carried out to end crimes and impunity in Libya. He nonetheless expressed concerns about the practice of torture and cases of deaths in custody in centers controlled by the armed Brigades. Finally, he recalled that Resolution 1970 was an example of the capacity to unite and the responsiveness of the Security Council.
On 9 December 2013, the Security Council held consultations on UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL). Mr. Tarek Mitri, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of UNSMIL, deplored the precarious humanitarian situation characterized by murders and abductions of officials in Benghazi and Derna. The events of recent months had once again shown the need for a dialogue with armed groups. The head of UNSMIL also returned to the recent popular protests in Benghazi and Tripoli, which had led to the withdrawal of some armed forces from the capital. He also expressed concerns concerning the detention of 8000 detainees related to the 2011 conflict by armed brigades, while UNSMIL pointed out cases of torture and ill-treatment. In this context, Mr. Mitri stressed the role of the United Nations mission in promoting the rule of law and the protection of human rights. Concerning the electoral process, Mr. Mitri noted steady progress towards the election of an assembly tasked with drafting a new Constitution. He stressed the key role that an inclusive national dialogue could play to defuse the excessive political polarization and to produce a shared global vision for the future.
During the private consultations, the representative of France pointed out that Libya entered a long period of instability. The international community needed to increase its efforts to restore stability to Libya and support the current transition to democracy in the country.
On 16 December 2013, the Security Council adopted a presidential statement expressing its concern at the worsening security situation and political divisions, which threaten to undermine the transition to democracy in the country.
On 10 March 2014, the Security Council held a meeting on the situation in Libya with the Permanent Representative of Libya, Mr Ibrahim Omar Ali Dabbashi, the Special Representative of the Secretary-general in Libya and head of the UNSMIL (United Nations Support Mission in Lybia), Mr Tarek Mitri, and the Permanent Representative of Rwanda and president of the 1970 sanctions committee on Libya, Mr Eugène-Richard Gasana.
Mr Mitri reported a worsened security situation in Libya and a growing frustration on the political process. He expressed concern at the recent increase in violence manifested by the occupation of governmental buildings and the deaths of civilians. He reminded the urgency of rebuilding the Libyan state.
During closed consultations that followed, the Permanent Representative of France expressed concern at the worsened security situation in Libya. He commended the work of the European border assistance mission in Libya, EUBAM Libya. He regretted that the insecurity in the country led to the murder of a French engineer in Benghazi on 2 March. The restoration of the state should remain a priority. In this context, he encouraged the renewal of the UNSMIL as well as the reinforcement of the EUBAM mission.